Effect of Hydrothermal and Enzymatic Treatments on the Physicochemical Properties of Waxy Maize Flour

열수 및 효소 처리에 의한 찰옥수수가루의 물리화학적 특성

  • Received : 2016.02.18
  • Accepted : 2016.03.31
  • Published : 2016.04.30


Physicochemical properties of waxy maize flours prepared by hydrothermal and enzymatic treatments were evaluated. Waxy maize flours were hydrothermally treated using heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and annealing (ANN) and enzymatically treated using commercial enzymes (cellulase, proteinase, and pectinase). The HMT-modified waxy maize flours had low water absorption index (WAI), melting enthalpy, viscosity, and crystallinity. However, ANN-modified and enzymatically modified waxy maize flours had high WAI, melting enthalpy, and viscosity. X-ray diffraction analysis of ANN-modified and enzymatically modified waxy maize flours revealed a typical A-type pattern and displayed sharper crystalline peaks than those observed for the control groups (native waxy maize flours). In contrast, the crystallinity of HMT-modified waxy maize flours were decreased by hydrothermal treatment.


waxy maize flour;heat-moisture treatment and annealing;enzymatic treatment;physicochemical properties


  1. Song EM, Kim HY, Lee SH, Woo SH, Kim HS, Kyung KS, Lee JS, Jeong HS. Chemical components and quality characteristics of waxy corns cultured by conventional and environmentallyfriendly methods. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 40: 962-968 (2011)
  2. Jung TW, Moon HG, Cha SW, Kim SL, Kim SK, Son BY. Comparison of grain quality characteristics in waxy corn hybrids with a white and a black colored pericarp. Korean J. Breed. Sci. 33: 40-44 (2001)
  3. Choi JH, Oh DH. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological and physicochemical qualities of vacuum-packaged sugartreated waxy corns during storage. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 35: 768-773 (2006)
  4. Lee SH, Hwang IG, Kim HY, Lee HK, Lee SH, Woo SH, Lee JS, Jeong HS. Physicochemical property and antioxidant activity of daehak waxy corns with different harvest times. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 39: 719-724 (2010)
  5. Maache-Rezzoug Z, Zarguili I, Loisel C, Queveau D, Buleon A. Structural modifications and thermal transitions of standard maize starch after DIC hydrothermal treatment. Carbohydr. Polym. 74: 802-812 (2008)
  6. Chung HJ, Liu Q, Hoover R. Impact of annealing and heat-moisture treatment on rapidly digestible, slowly digestible and resistant starch levels in native and gelatinized corn, pea and lentil starches. Carbohydr. Polym. 75: 436-447 (2009)
  7. Jayakody L, Hoover R. Effect of annealing on the molecular structure and physicochemical properties of starches from different botanical origins-a review. Carbohydr. Polym. 74: 691-703 (2008)
  8. Hormdok R, Noomhorm A. Hydrothermal treatments of rice starch for improvement of rice noodle quality. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40: 1723-1731 (2007)
  9. Kim MS, Park JD, Lee HY, Kum JS. Effect of rice flour prepared with enzyme treatment on quality characteristics of rice cookies. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 1439-1445 (2013)
  10. Ahn JE, Go JY, Koh BK. Effects of xylanase on the baking properties of sorghum. Korean J. Food Cook. Sci. 31: 18-25 (2015)
  11. Seo DH, Kim MS, Choi HW, Sung JM, Choi YS, Park CS, Baik MY, Kim HS. Improvement of starch extraction efficiency from potato with cellulase family. Food Eng. Prog. 20: 78-83 (2016)
  12. AOAC. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 18th ed. Method 979.09 and 954.02. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA (2005)
  13. Anderson RA. Water absorption and solubility and amylograph characteristics of roll-cooked small grain products. Cereal Chem. 59: 265-269 (1982)
  14. Arns B, Paraginski RT, Bartz J, de Almeida Schiavon R, Elias MC, da Rosa Zavareze E, Dias ARG. The effects of heat-moisture treatment of rice grains before parboiling on viscosity profile and physicochemical properties. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 49: 1939-1945 (2014)
  15. Saikia S, Dutta H, Saikia D, Mahanta CL. Quality characterisation and estimation of phytochemicals content and antioxidant capacity of aromatic pigmented and non-pigmented rice varieties. Food Res. Int. 46: 334-340 (2012)
  16. Sirisoontaralak P, Noomhorm A. Changes to physicochemical properties and aroma of irradiated rice. J. Stored Prod. Res. 42: 264-276 (2006)
  17. Molteberg EL, Magnus EM, Bjorge JM, Nilsson A. Sensory and chemical studies of lipid oxidation in raw and heat-treated oat flours. Cereal Chem. 73: 579-587 (1996)
  18. Hwang KT, Jung ST. Effects of heat treatment and irradiation on lipid hydrolysis and oxidation of rice bran. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 28: 928-934 (1996)
  19. Lee YR, Choi YH, Koh HJ, Kang MY. Quality characteristics of brown rice flakes prepared with giant embryonic rice and normal rice cultivars. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33: 540-544 (2001)
  20. Lim JH, Kim JH, Seo YH, Moon KD. Effects of low-temperature blanching on physical properties of chestnut powder. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 31: 1216-1220 (1999)
  21. Sandhu KS, Singh N, Lim ST. A comparison of native and acid thinned normal and waxy corn starches: Physicochemical, thermal, morphological and pasting properties. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40: 1527-1536 (2007)
  22. Sun Q, Han Z, Wang L, Xiong L. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heatmoisture treatment. Food Chem. 145: 756-764 (2014)
  23. Puncha-arnon S, Uttapap D. Rice starch vs. rice flour: Differences in their properties when modified by heat-moisture treatment. Carbohydr. Polym. 91: 85-91 (2013)
  24. Lim ST, Lee JH, Shin DH, Lim HS. Comparison of protein extraction solutions for rice starch isolation and effects of residual protein content on starch pasting properties. Starch/Starke 51: 120-125 (1999)<120::AID-STAR120>3.0.CO;2-A
  25. Xie L, Chen N, Duan B, Zhu Z, Liao X. Impact of proteins on pasting and cooking properties of waxy and non-waxy rice. J. Cereal Sci. 47: 372-379 (2008)
  26. Jacobs H, Eerlingen RC, Clauwert W, Delcour JA. Influence of annealing on the pasting properties of starches from varying botanical sources. Cereal Chem. 72: 480-487 (1995)
  27. Krueger BR, Knutson CA, Inglett GE, Walker CE. A differential scanning calorimetry study on the effect of annealing on gelatinization behavior of corn starch. J. Food Sci. 52: 715-718 (1987)
  28. Krueger BR, Walker CE, Knutson CA, Inglett GE. Differential scanning calorimetry of raw and annealed starch isolated from normal and mutant maize genotypes. Cereal Chem. 64: 187-190 (1987)


Supported by : 농림축산식품부