DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Furnished Cage Type on Behavior and Welfare of Laying Hens

  • Li, Xiang (College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University) ;
  • Chen, Donghua (College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University) ;
  • Li, Jianhong (College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University) ;
  • Bao, Jun (College of Animal Science and Technology, Northeast Agricultural University)
  • Received : 2015.07.07
  • Accepted : 2015.09.11
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to compare the effects of layout of furniture (a perch, nest, and sandbox) in cages on behavior and welfare of hens. Two hundred and sixteen Hyline Brown laying hens were divided into five groups (treatments) with four replicates per group: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III) and conventional cages (CC). The experiment started at 18 week of age and finished at 52 week of age. Hens' behaviors were filmed during the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 13:00 to 14:00; 16:00 to 17:00 on three separate days and two hens from each cage were measured for welfare parameters at 50 wk of age. The results showed that feeding and laying of all hens showed no effect by cage type (p>0.05), and the hens in the furnished cages had significantly lower standing and higher walking than CC hens (p<0.05). The birds in MFC-III had significant higher preening, scratching and feather-pecking behavior than in the other cages (p<0.05). No difference in nesting behavior was found in the hens between the furnished cages (p>0.05). The hens in MFC-I, -II, and -III showed a significant higher socializing behavior than SFC and CC (p<0.05). The lowest perching was for the hens in SFC and the highest perching found for the hens in MFC-III. Overall, the hens in CC showed poorer welfare conditions than the furnished cages, in which the feather condition score, gait score and tonic immobility duration of the hens in CC was significantly higher than SFC, MFC-I, MFC-II, and MFC-III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the furnished cage design affected both behavior and welfare states of hens. Overall, MFC-III cage design was better than SFC, MFC-I, and MFC-II cage designs.

Keywords

Behavior;Welfare;Furnished Cage Design;Hen

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

References

  1. Abrahamsson, P. and R. Tauson. 1997. Effects of group size on performance, health and birds' use of facilities in furnished cages for laying hens. Acta. Agric. Scand. A-Anim. Sci. 47:254-260.
  2. Albentosa, M. J. and J. J. Cooper. 2004. Effects of cage height and stocking density on the frequency of comfort behaviours performed by laying hens housed in furnished cages. Anim. Welf. 13:419-424.
  3. Appleby, M. C., G. S. Hogarth, J. A. Anderson, B. O. Hughes, and C. T. Whittemore. 1988. Performance of a deep litter system for egg production. Br. Poult. Sci. 29:735-751. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071668808417102
  4. Appleby, M. C. and B. O. Hughes. 1995. The Edinburgh modified cage for laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 36:707-718. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071669508417815
  5. Appleby, M. C., J. A. Mench, and B. O. Hughes. 2004. Poultry behaviour and welfare. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK.
  6. Appleby, M. C., A. W. Walker, C. J. Nicol, A. C. Lindberg, R. Freire, B. O. Hughes, and H. A. Elson. 2002. Development of furnished cages for laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 43:489-500. https://doi.org/10.1080/0007166022000004390
  7. Barnett, J. L. and G. M. Cronin. 2005. Welfare of laying hens in furnished cages. Australian Egg Corporation Limited, North Sydney, Australia. AECL Project No: DAV-197A.
  8. Blokhuis, H. J., T. Fiks Van Niekerk, W. Bessei, A. Elson, D. Guemene, J. B. Kjaer, G. A. Maria Levrino, C. J. Nicol, R. Tauson, C. A. Weeks, and H. A. Van De Weerd. 2007. The LayWel project: Welfare implications of changes in production systems for laying hens. World Poult. Sci. J. 63:101-114. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0043933907001328
  9. Braastad, B. O. 1990. Effects on behaviour and plumage of a keystimuli floor and a perch in triple cages for laying hens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 27:127-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(90)90012-3
  10. Cordiner, L. S. and C. J. Savory. 2001. Use of perches and nestboxes by laying hens in relation to social status, based on examination of consistency of ranking orders and frequency of interaction. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 71:305-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00186-6
  11. Dawkins, M. S. 1999. The role of behaviour in the assessment of poultry welfare. World Poult. Sci. J. 55:295-303. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS19990022
  12. Directive, E. U. 1999. Council Directive 99/74/EC of 19 July 1999 laying down minimum standards for the protection of laying hens. Official Journal of the European Communities 53-57.
  13. Gallup, G. G. 1979. Tonic immobility as a measure of fear in domestic fowl. Anim. Behav. 27:316-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-3472(79)90159-3
  14. Guinebretiere, M., H. Beyer, C. Arnould, and V. Michel. 2014. The choice of litter material to promote pecking, scratching and dustbathing behaviours in laying hens housed in furnished cages. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 155:56-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.02.013
  15. Gvaryahu, G., E. Ararat, E. Asaf, M. Lev, J. I. Weller, B. Robinzon, and N. Snapir. 1994. An enrichment object that reduces aggressiveness and mortality in caged laying hens. Physiol. Behav. 55:313-316. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(94)90139-2
  16. Lindberg, A. C. and C. J. Nicol. 1997. Dustbathing in modified battery cages: Is sham dustbathing an adequate substitute? Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 55:113-128. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00030-0
  17. Martin, P. and P. Bateson. 2007. Measuring Behaviour: An Introductory Guide. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  18. Mendl, M. 1999. Performing under pressure: Stress and cognitive function. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 65:221-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(99)00088-X
  19. Nicol, C. J., A. C. Lindberg, A. J. Phillips, S. J. Pope, L. J. Wilkins, and L. E. Green. 2001. Influence of prior exposure to wood shavings on feather pecking, dustbathing and foraging in adult laying hens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73:141-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(01)00126-5
  20. Pickel, T., B. Scholz, and L. Schrader. 2010. Perch material and diameter affects particular perching behaviours in laying hens. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 127:37-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2010.08.005
  21. Pohle, K. and H. W. Cheng. 2009. Comparative effects of furnished and battery cages on egg production and physiological parameters in White Leghorn hens. Poult. Sci. 88:2042-2051. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00171
  22. Rodenburg, T. B., F. A. Tuyttens, B. Sonck, K. De Reu, L. Herman, and J. Zoons. 2005. Welfare, health, and hygiene of laying hens housed in furnished cages and in alternative housing systems. J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci. 8:211-226. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327604jaws0803_5
  23. Shimmura, T., Y. Eguchi, K. Uetake, and T. Tanaka. 2007. Behavior, performance and physical condition of laying hens in conventional and small furnished cages. Anim. Sci. J. 78:323-329. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2007.00442.x
  24. Struelens, E., F. A. Tuyttens, L. Duchateau, T. Leroy, M. Cox, E. Vranken, J. Buyse, J. Zoons, D. Berckmans, F. Odberg, and B. Sonck. 2008. Perching behaviour and perch height preference of laying hens in furnished cages varying in height. Br. Poult. Sci. 49:381-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660802158332
  25. Tactacan, G. B., W. Guenter, N. J. Lewis, J. C. Rodriguez- Lecompte, and J. D. House. 2009. Performance and welfare of laying hens in conventional and enriched cages. Poult. Sci. 88: 698-707. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00369
  26. Tanaka, T., T. Ozaki, T. Watanabe, H. Tanida, and T. Yoshimoto. 1993. Effects of perches on behavior and performance of caged hens. Japanese Poult. Sci. 30:183-189. https://doi.org/10.2141/jpsa.30.183
  27. Wall, H., R. Tauson, and K. Elwinger. 2004. Pop hole passages and welfare in furnished cages for laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci. 45:20-27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071660410001668815
  28. Wall, H., R. Tauson, and K. Elwinger. 2008. Effects of litter substrate and genotype on layers' use of litter, exterior appearance, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratios in furnished cages. Poult. Sci. 87:2458-2465. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2008-00038
  29. Weeks, C. A. and C. J. Nicol. 2006. Behavioural needs, priorities and preferences of laying hens. World Poult. Sci. J. 62:296-307. https://doi.org/10.1079/WPS200598

Cited by

  1. Evaluation of Fear and Stress in White Layers Housed in Either Conventional Cages or Enriched Colony Cage vol.16, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2017.467.474
  2. Effect of simple and low-cost enrichment items on behavioral, clinical, and productive variables of caged laying hens pp.1532-7604, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2018.1448984