Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa

  • Sole, M. (Department of Agroforestry Sciences, University of Seville) ;
  • Pena, F. (Department of Animal Production, University of Cordoba) ;
  • Domenech, V. (Department of Animal Production, University of Cordoba) ;
  • Clemente, I. (Andalusian Technology Center of Meat Sector (TEICA)) ;
  • Polvillo, O. (Department of Agroforestry Sciences, University of Seville) ;
  • Valera, M. (Department of Agroforestry Sciences, University of Seville) ;
  • Verona, J.C. (Inddeco S.L. Dehesa Iberian Goose) ;
  • Rubi, M. (Inddeco S.L. Dehesa Iberian Goose) ;
  • Molina, A. (Department of Genetics, University of Cordoba)
  • Received : 2015.07.08
  • Accepted : 2015.10.09
  • Published : 2016.06.01


This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (p<0.01) were greater for the ET group at the same live weight. None of the groups showed differences in the production of fatty liver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and $8.87kg/cm^2$), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (p<0.001), reflecting the optimum nutritional values as a component of a healthy consumer diet.


Carcass;Organic Dehesa;Fatty Acids;Geese;Meat Quality


  1. 93/119/EC Council Directive. 1993. On the protection of animals at the time of slaughter or killing. In: Official Journal of the European Communities L 340. (Eds. E. Council), pp. 21-34.
  2. Aldai, N., K. Osoro, L. Barron, and A. Najera. 2006. Gas liquid chromatographic method for analysing complex mixtures of fatty acids including conjugated linoleic acids (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis12 isomers) and long-chain (n-3 or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids: Application to the intramuscular fat of beef meat. J. Chromatogr. A. 1110:133-139.
  3. Andres, K. and E. Kapkowska. 2011. Applicability of anatid and galliform microsatellite markers to the genetic diversity studies of domestic geese (Anser anser domesticus) through the genotyping of the endangered zatorska breed. BMC Res. Notes 4:65.
  4. Arroyo, J., A. Auvergne, J. P. Dubois, F. Lavigne, M. Bijja, C. Bannelier, H. Manse, and L. Fortun-Lamothe. 2013. Effects of substituting yellow corn for sorghum in geese diets on magret and foie gras quality. Poult. Sci. 92:2448-2456.
  5. Azcona, J. O., P. T. Garcia, M. E. Cossu, B. F. Iglesias, A. Picallo, C. Perez, C. I. Gallinger, M. J. Schang, and Z. E. Canet. 2008. Meat quality of Argentinean ''Camperos" chicken enhanced in omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids. Meat Sci. 79:437-443.
  6. Batty, J. 1996. Domesticated Ducks and Geese. 3rd Ed. Beech House Publishing, Lancashire, UK.
  7. Bouderoua, K., J. Mourot, and G. Selselet-Attou. 2009. The effect of green oak acorn (Quercus ilex) based diet on growth performance and meat fatty acid composition of broilers. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 22:843-848.
  8. Cervantes-Pahm, S. K., L. Yanhong, and H. H. Stein. 2014. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains. Br. J. Nutr. 111:1663-1672.
  9. Chen, W., Y. Y. Jiang, J. P. Wang, Y. Q. Huang, and Z. X. Wang. 2014. Effects of dietary flaxseed meal on production performance, egg quality, and hatchability of Huoyan geese and fatty acids profile in egg yolk and thigh meat from their offspring. Livest. Sci. 164:102-108.
  10. CIE. 1986. Colorimetry Publication CIE 15.2. 2nd Ed. Commission Internationale de l'Eclaraige (CIE), Vienna, Austria.
  11. FAO. 1990. Expert Consultation on Waterfowl Production in Africa. In: Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation on Waterfowl. Accra, Ghana. pp. 46.
  12. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1994. Fats and oils in human nutrition. In: FAO Food and Nutrition, Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Rome, Italy. Paper 57.
  13. George, G., R. Nayar, and S. Cyriac. 2014. Comparison of meat quality characteristics of vigova super M and Kuttanad ducks. Int. J. Sci. Res. 3:14-17.
  14. Grundy, S. M. and M. A. Denke. 1990. Dietary influences on serum lipids and lipoproteins. J. Lipid Res. 31:1149-1172.
  15. Guemene, D., Z. Dan Shi, and G. Guy. 2012. Production systems for waterfowl. In: Alternative Systems for Poultry: Health, Welfare and Productivity (Eds. V. Sandilands, and P. M. Hocking). CABI Publishing, Wallingford, New Zealand. pp. 128-154.
  16. Has-Schon, E., Z. Skrtic, and G. Kralik. 2008. Beneficial effects of different dietary oils on cholesterol level and fatty acids profile of turkey pectoral muscle. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 7:161-171.
  17. Heo, K. N., E. C. Hong, C. D. Kim, H. K. Kim, M. J. Lee, H. J. Choo, H. C. Choi, M. M. H. Mushtaq, R. Parvin, and J. H. Kim. 2015. Growth performance, carcass yield, and quality and chemical traits of meat from commercial Korean native ducks with 2-way crossbreeding. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:382-390.
  18. Huang, Y., Y. Wang, D. He, and Y. Liu. 2010. Genetic diversity of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene and its association with slaughter traits in the landes goose. Biochem. Genet. 48:944-953.
  19. Jacob, J. and T. Pescatore. 2013. Selecting Geese. Cooperative extension service University of Kentucky, College of agriculture, food and environment, Lexington, KY. ASC-196. Accessed June 10, 2015.
  20. Keddam, R., K. Bouderoua, M. El-Affifi, and G. Selselet-Attou. 2010. Growth performances, carcasses parameters and meat fatty acid composition of lamb fed green oak acorns (Quercus ilex) based diet. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9:4631-4637.
  21. Kwon, H. J., Y. K. Choo, Y. I. Choi, E. J. Kim, H. K. Kim, K. N. Heo, H. C. Choi, S. K. Lee, C. J. Kim, B. G. Kim, C. W. Kang, and B. K. An. 2014. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of korean native ducks and commercial meat-type ducks raised under same feeding and rearing conditions. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1638-1643.
  22. Liu, H. W. and D. W. Zhou. 2013. Influence of pasture intake on meat quality, lipid oxidation, and fatty acid composition of geese. J. Anim. Sci. 91:764-771.
  23. Mamani-Linares, L. W. and C. Gallo. 2013. Fatty acid profile of sheep and horse meat reared under extensive production system. Rev. Inv. Vet. Perú. 24:257-263.
  24. Murawska, D., D. Michalik, R. Bochno, and W. Makowski. 2010. Carcass quality and production results of geese fattened on oat following a restricted feeding regime. Polish J. Nat. Sci. 25:360-368.
  25. National Research Council. 1991. Microlivestock: Little-known Small Animals with a Promising Economic Future. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 101-113.
  26. Omojola, A. B. 2007. Carcass and organoleptic characteristics of duck meat as influenced by breed and sex. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 6:329-334.
  27. Okruszek, A. 2012. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of indigenous Polish geese breeds. Arch. Tierz. 55:294-302.
  28. Recio, C., Q. Martín, and C. Raposo. 2013. GC-C-IRMS analysis of FAMEs as a tool to ascertain the diet of Iberian pigs used for the production of pork products with high added value. Grasas Aceites. 64:181-190.
  29. Rey, A. I., A. Daza, C. Lopez-Carrasco, and C. J. Lopez-Bote. 2006. Feeding Iberian pigs with acorns and grass in either freerange or confinement affects the carcass characteristics and fatty acids and tocopherols accumulation in Longissimus dorsi muscle and backfat. Meat Sci. 73:66-74.
  30. Statsoft, Inc. 2007. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 8. Tulsa, OK, USA.
  31. Turner, K. E., K. A. Cassida, H. N. Zerby, and M. A. Browna. 2015. Carcass parameters and meat quality in meat-goat kids finished on chicory, birdsfoot trefoil, or red clover pastures. Meat Sci. 105:68-74.
  32. Wijendran, V. and K. C. Hayes. 2004. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acid balance and cardiovascular health. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 24:597-615.
  33. Wood, J. D. and M. Enser. 1997. Factors influencing fatty acids in meat and the role of antioxidants in improving meat quality. Br. J. Nutr. 78:S49-S60.
  34. Wood, J. D., R. I. Richardson, G. R. Nute, A. V. Fisher, M. M. Campo, E. Kasapidou, P. R. Sheard, and M. Enser. 2003. Effects of fatty acids on meat quality: A review. Meat Sci. 66:21-32.