DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Influence of Wheat Straw Pelletizing and Inclusion Rate in Dry Rolled or Steam-flaked Corn-based Finishing Diets on Characteristics of Digestion for Feedlot Cattle

  • Manriquez, O.M. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Montano, M.F. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Calderon, J.F. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Valdez, J.A. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Chirino, J.O. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Gonzalez, V.M. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Baja California) ;
  • Salinas-Chavira, J. (Veterinary School, Autonomous University of Tamaulipas) ;
  • Mendoza, G.D. (Department of Agricultural and Animal Production, Autonomous Metropolitan University) ;
  • Soto, S. (Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University) ;
  • Zinn, R.A. (Department of Animal Science, University of California)
  • Received : 2015.01.24
  • Accepted : 2015.07.10
  • Published : 2016.06.01

Abstract

Eight Holstein steers ($216{\pm}48kg$ body weight) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate effects of wheat straw processing (ground vs pelleted) at two straw inclusion rates (7% and 14%; dry matter basis) in dry rolled or steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets on characteristics of digestion. The experimental design was a split plot consisting of two simultaneous $4{\times}4$ Latin squares. Increasing straw level reduced ruminal (p<0.01) and total tract (p = 0.03) organic matter (OM) digestion. As expected, increasing wheat straw level from 7% to 14% decreased (p<0.05) ruminal and total tract digestion of OM. Digestion of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch, per se, were not affected (p>0.10) by wheat straw level. Likewise, straw level did not influence ruminal acetate and propionate molar proportions or estimated methane production (p>0.10). Pelleting straw did not affect ($p{\geq}0.48$) ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, and starch, or microbial efficiency. Ruminal feed N digestion was greater (7.4%; p = 0.02) for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets. Although ruminal starch digestion was not affected by straw processing, post-ruminal (p<0.01), and total-tract starch (p = 0.05) digestion were greater for ground than for pelleted wheat straw diets, resulting in a tendency for increased post-ruminal (p = 0.06) and total tract (p = 0.07) OM digestion. Pelleting wheat straw decreased (p<0.01) ruminal pH, although ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and estimated methane were not affected ($p{\geq}0.27$). Ruminal digestion of OM and starch, and post-ruminal and total tract digestion of OM, starch and N were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal NDF digestion was greater (p = 0.02) for dry rolled than for steam-flaked corn, although total tract NDF digestion was unaffected (p = 0.94). Ruminal microbial efficiency and ruminal degradation of feed N were not affected (p>0.14) by corn processing. However, microbial N flow to the small intestine and ruminal N efficiency (non-ammonia N flow to the small intestine/N intake) were greater (p<0.01) for steam-flaked than for dry rolled corn-based diets. Ruminal pH and total VFA concentration were not affected ($p{\geq}0.16$) by corn processing method. Compared with dry rolled corn, steam-flaked corn-based diets resulted in decreased acetate:propionate molar ratio (p = 0.02). It is concluded that at 7% or 14% straw inclusion rate, changes in physical characteristics of wheat straw brought about by pelleting negatively impact OM digestion of both steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets. This effect is due to decreased post-ruminal starch digestion. Replacement of ground straw with pelleted straw also may decrease ruminal pH.

Keywords

Digestion;Cattle;Wheat Straw;Corn Grain;Processing

References

  1. AOAC. 1986. Official Methods of Analysis, 13th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
  2. AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.
  3. Balch, C. C. 1958. Observations on the act of eating in cattle. Br. J. Nutr. 12:330-3345. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19580044
  4. Bergen, W. G., D. B. Purser, and J. H. Cline. 1968. Effect of ration on the nutritive quality of rumen microbial protein. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1497-1501. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1968.2751497x
  5. Berry, B. A., C. R. Krehbiel, A. W. Confer, D. R. Gill, R. A. Smith, and M. Montelongo. 2004. Effects of dietary energy and starch concentrations for newly received feedlot calves: I. Growth performance and health. J. Anim. Sci. 82:837-844. https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.823837x
  6. Calderon-Cortes, J. F. and R. A. Zinn. 1996. Influence of dietary forage level and forage coarseness of grind on growth performance and digestive function in feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2310-2316. https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.74102310x
  7. Corona, L., F. N. Owens, and R. A. Zinn. 2006. Impact of corn vitreousness and processing on site and extent of digestion by feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3020-3031. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2005-603
  8. Hill, F. N. and D. L. Anderson. 1958. Comparison of metabolizable energy and productive energy determinations with growing chicks. J. Nutr. 64:587-603. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/64.4.587
  9. Lesoing, G., I. Rush, T. Klopfenstein, and J. Ward. 1980. Wheat straw in growing cattle diets. J. Anim. Sci. 51:257-262. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1980.512257x
  10. Mertens, D. R. and L. O. Ely. 1979. A dynamic model of fiber digestion and passage in the ruminant for evaluating forage quality. J. Anim. Sci. 49:1085-1095. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.4941085x
  11. Mertens, D. R. 1997. Creating a system for meeting the fiber requirements of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1463-1481. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76075-2
  12. NRC. 2000. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle, 7th Rev. Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  13. Orskov, E. R., N. A. MacLeod, and D. J. Kyle. 1986. Flow of nitrogen from the rumen and abomasum in cattle and sheep given protein free nutrients by intragastric infusion. Br. J. Nutr. 56:241-248. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19860103
  14. Owens, F. N., R. A. Zinn, and Y. K. Kim. 1986. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small intestine. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1634-1648. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6351634x
  15. Prigge, E. C., M. L. Galyean, F. N. Owens, D. G. Wagner, and R. R. Johnson. 1978. Microbial protein synthesis in steers fed processed corn rations. J. Anim. Sci. 46:249-254. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1978.461249x
  16. Salinas-Chavira, J., E. Alvarez, M. F. Montano, and R. A. Zinn. 2013. Influence of forage NDF level, source and pelletizing on growth performance, dietary energetics, and characteristics of digestive function for feedlot cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 183:106-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.05.004
  17. SAS. 2007. User's Guide: Statistics Version 9, 6th edn. SAS Inst., Inc, Cary, NC, USA.
  18. Van Soest, P. J., J. B Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  19. Vasconcelos, J. T. and M. L. Galyean. 2007. Nutritional recommendations of feedlot consulting nutritionists: The 2007 Texas Tech University survey. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2772-2781. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2007-0261
  20. Ware, R. A. and R. A. Zinn. 2005. Effect of pelletizing on the feeding value of rice straw in steam-flaked corn growingfinishing diets for feedlot cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 123- 124:631-642.
  21. Wolin, M. J. 1960. A theoretical rumen fermentation balance. J. Dairy Sci. 43:1452-1459. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(60)90348-9
  22. Woodford, J. A., N. A. Jorgensen, and G. P. Barrington. 1986. Impact of dietary fiber and physical form on performance of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1035-1047. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80499-4
  23. Zinn, R. A. 1986. Influence of forage level on response of feedlot steers to salinomycin supplementation. J. Anim. Sci. 63:2005-2012. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6362005x
  24. Zinn, R. A. and F. N. Owens. 1986. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 66:157‐166. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas86-017
  25. Zinn, R. A. 1990. Influence of flake density on the comparative feeding value of steam-flaked corn for feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 68:767-775. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.683767x
  26. Zinn, R. A., A. Plascencia, and R. Barajas. 1994. Interaction of forage level and monensin in diets for feedlot cattle on growth performance and digestive function. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2209‐ 2215.
  27. Zinn, R. A., C. F. Adams, and M. S. Tamayo. 1995. Interaction of feed intake level on comparative ruminal and total tract digestion of dry-rolled and steam-flaked corn. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1239-1245. https://doi.org/10.2527/1995.7351239x
  28. Zinn, R. A., E. G. Alvarez, M. F. Montaño, A. Plascencia, and J. E. Ramirez. 1998. Influence of tempering on the feeding value of rolled corn in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2239-2246. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7692239x
  29. Zinn, R. A., F. N. Owens, and R. A. Ware. 2002. Flaking corn: Processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1145-1156. https://doi.org/10.2527/2002.8051145x

Cited by

  1. Effect of energy density and virginiamycin supplementation in diets on growth performance and digestive function of finishing steers vol.30, pp.10, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0826