DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

  • Liu, Y.F. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Sun, F.F. (Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Wan, F.C. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Zhao, H.B. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Liu, X.M. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • You, W. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Cheng, H.J. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Liu, G.F. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Tan, X.W. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding) ;
  • Song, E.L. (Shandong Key Lab of Animal Disease Control and Breeding)
  • Received : 2015.05.21
  • Accepted : 2015.08.24
  • Published : 2016.05.01

Abstract

The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight ($575{\pm}10kg$) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle.

Keywords

Beef Cattle;Feeding Systems;Production Performance;Rumen Fermentation;Rumen Digesta Particle

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, Youth Research Foundation of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences

References

  1. Bargo, F., L. D. Muller, J. E. Delahoy, and T. W. Cassidy. 2002a. Performance of high producing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2948-2963. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74381-6
  2. Bargo, F., L. D. Muller, G A Varga, J. E. Delahoy, and T. W. Cassidy. 2002b. Ruminal digestion and fermentation of highproducing dairy cows with three different feeding systems combining pasture and total mixed rations. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2964-2973. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74382-8
  3. Bargo, F., L. D. Muller, J. E. Delahoy, and T. W. Cassidy. 2002c. Milk response to concentrate supplementation of high producing dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1777-1792. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74252-5
  4. Boguhn, J., H. Kluth, and M. Rodehutscord. 2006. Effect of total mixed ration composition on fermentation and efficiency of ruminal microbial crude protein synthesis in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 89:1580-1591. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72225-1
  5. Charlton, G. L., S. M. Rutter, M. East, and L. A. Sinclair. 2011. Effects of providing total mixed rations indoors and on pasture on the behavior of lactating dairy cattle and their preference to be indoors or on pasture. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3875-3884. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4172
  6. Chikhou, F. H., A. P. Moloncy, P. Allcn, J. F. Quirke, F. H. Austin, and J. F. Roche. 1993. Long-term effects of cimaterol in friesian steers: I. Growth, feed efficiency, and selected carcass traits. J. Anim. Sci. 71: 906-913. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.714906x
  7. Dann, H. M., G. A. Varga, and D. E. Putnam. 1999. Improving energy supply to late gestation and early postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1765-1778. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75407-X
  8. Lesmeister K. E., A. J. Heinrichs, and M. T. Gabler. 2004. Effects of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) culture on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1832-1839. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73340-8
  9. Luginbuhl, J. M., K. R. Pond, and J. C. Burns. 1990. Changes in ruminal and fecal particle weight distribution of steers fed coastal bermudagrass hay at four levels. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2864-2873. https://doi.org/10.2527/1990.6892864x
  10. Maekawa, M., K. A. Beauchemin, and D. A. Christensen. 2002. Effect of concentrate level and feeding management on chewing activities, saliva production, and ruminal pH of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:1165-1175. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74179-9
  11. Maulfair, D. D., M. Fustini, and A. J. Heinrichs. 2011. Effect of varying total mixed ration particle size on rumen digesta and fecal particle size and digestibility in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94:3527-3536. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3718
  12. Moya, D., A. Mazzenga, L. Holtshausen, G. Cozzi, L. A. Gonzalez, S. Calsamiglia, D. G. Gibb, T. A. McAllister, K. A. Beauchemin, and K. Schwartzkopf-Genswein. 2011. Feeding behavior and ruminal acidosis in beef cattle offered a total mixed ration or dietary components separately. J Anim Sci. 89:520-530. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3045
  13. Nagaraja, T. G. and K. F. Lechtenberg. 2007. Acidosis in feedlot cattle. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 23:333-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2007.04.002
  14. Oshita, T., K. Nonaka, S. Kume, and T. Nakui. 2004. Effects of forage type on particle size distribution of ruminal digesta and faeces of non-lactating cows fed high quality forage. Livest. Prod. Sci. 91:107-115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.07.015
  15. Reis, R. B., F. San Emeterio, D. K. Combs, L. D. Satter, and H. N. Costa. 2001. Effects of corn particle size and source on performance of lactating cows fed direct-cut grass-legume forage. J. Dairy Sci. 84:429-441. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74493-1
  16. Sekine, J., H. E. M. Kamel, and R. Oura. 1994. Effect of lignin content of hay on the particle size distribution of digesta in the rumen and cecum of sheep. Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn) 65:928-941.
  17. Uden, P. and P. J. Van-Soest. 1982. The determination of digesta particle size in some herbivores. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 7:35-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(82)90034-7
  18. Waghorn, G. C., I. D. Shelton, and V. J. Thomas. 1989. Particle breakdown and rumen digestion of fresh ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) fed to cows during a restricted feeding period. Br. J. Nutr. 61:409-423. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19890127
  19. Yang, W. Z., K. A. Beauchemin, and L. M. Rode. 2001. Barley processing, forage:concentrate, and forage length effects on chewing and digesta passage in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2709-2720. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(01)74725-X

Cited by

  1. Linseed Oil Supplementation of Lambs’ Diet in Early Life Leads to Persistent Changes in Rumen Microbiome Structure vol.8, pp.1664-302X, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01656