- Volume 11 Issue 1
DOI QR Code
Evaluation on the Lightning Breakdown Voltages of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil under Non-Uniform Field at Small Gap Distances
- Thien, Yee Von ;
- Azis, Norhafiz ;
- Jasni, Jasronita ;
- Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab ;
- Yunus, Robiah ;
- Ishak, Mohd Taufiq ;
- Yaakub, Zaini
- Received : 2015.01.19
- Accepted : 2015.10.06
- Published : 2016.01.01
In recent years, there are a number of studies that have been carried out to explore the alternative for Mineral Oil (MO) as dielectric insulating fluid in transformers due to the increasing tight regulation on safety and environment. Vegetable oils have been identified as suitable candidate since it is biodegradable, non-toxic and high flash/fire points which ensure more in-service safety. Among the types of vegetable oils considered for transformers application are Palm Oil (PO) and Coconut Oil (CO). This paper presents an experimental study on the lightning breakdown voltages of PO and CO under non-uniform electric field based on needle-sphere electrodes configuration at 3 small gap distances. The type of PO used in this study is Refined Bleached and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO) Olein. The main focus of this study is to examine the lightning breakdown performance of RBDPO and CO under different test conditions and assess its suitability as dielectric insulating fluid in transformers. The effect of voltage polarities (positive and negative) and testing methods (rising-voltage, up-and-down and multiple-voltage) were investigated. The data obtained from all tests were analysed by Weibull distribution in order to determine the withstand voltages for each type of oils. It was found that the breakdown voltages of RBDPO and CO are comparable with MO under positive lightning impulse. Under negative lightning impulse, the breakdown voltage of MO is slightly higher than RBDPO and CO. There is no significant effect of testing methods and voltage polarities on lightning breakdown voltages of RBDPO and CO. Based on the statistical analysis, it is found that the breakdown voltages of RBDPO and CO at 1% probability are slightly lower than MO.
Palm oil;Coconut oil;Lightning breakdown voltage;Non-uniform field;Transformers
- “Sime Darby Plantation-Palm oil facts and figures,” 2014.
- U. U. Abdullahi, S. M. Bashi, R. Yunus, Mohibullah, and H. A. Nurdin, “The potentials of palm oil as a dielectric fluid,” National Proceedings of Power and Energy Conference (PECon), pp. 224-228, 2004.
- Suwarno and S. Aditama, “Dielectric properties of palm oils as liquid insulating materials: effects of fat content,” International Symposium on Electrical Insulating Materials (ISEIM), vol. 1, pp. 91-94, June 2005.
- A. Rajab, Suwarno, and S. Aminuddin, “Properties of RBDPO Oleum as a candidate of palm based-transformer insulating liquid,” International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (ICEEI), vol. 02, pp. 548-552, August 2009.
- A. Rajab, A. S. S. Sudirham, and Suwarno, “A Comparison of dielectric properties of palm oil with mineral and synthetic types insulating liquid under temperature variation,” Inst. Technology Bandung J. Eng. Sci., vol. 43, pp. 191-208, 2011.
- Suwarno, F. Sitinjak, I. Suhariadi, and L. Imsak, "Study on the characteristics of palm oil and it's derivatives as liquid insulating materials," International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials (ICPADM), vol. 2, pp. 495-498, June 2003.
- Norhafiz Azis, Jasronita Jasni, Mohd Zainal Abidin Ab Kadir, and M. N. Mohtar, “Suitability of Palm Based Oil as Dielectric Insulating Fluid in Transformers,” Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, vol. 1, pp. 742-749, 2013.
- S. S. Sinan, S. N. Shawaludin, J. Jasni, N. Azis, M. Z. A. A. Kadir, and M. N. Mohtar, “Investigation on the AC breakdown voltage of RBDPO Olein,” in IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia), pp. 760-763, 2014.
- N. I. A. Katim, M. T. Ishak, A. M. Ishak, Y. V. Thein, N. Azis, M. Z. A. A. Kadir, et al., “Examination on the lightning breakdown strength of biodegradable oil under quasi-uniform field,” IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon), pp. 17-20, 2014.
- Y. V. Thien, N. Azis, J. Jasni, M. Z. A. Ab Kadir, R. Yunus, M. T. Ishak, et al., “Investigation on the lightning breakdown voltage of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil under non-uniform field,” IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon), pp. 1-4, 2014.
- D.C. Abeysundara, C. Weerakoon, J R Lucas, and K. A. I. G. a. K. C. Obadage, “Coconut oil as an alternative to transformer oil,” ERU Symposium, November, 2001.
- B. S. H. M. S. Y. Matharage, M. A. R. M. Fernando, E. Tuncer, M. A. A. P. Bandara, and C. S. Kalpage, “Coconut oil as transformer liquid insulation - ageing and simulated thermal and electrical faults,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectric and Electrical Insulation, vol. 3, pp. 887-898, 2013.
- J. R. Lucas, D C Abeysundara, C. Weerakoon, K B M I Perera, K C Obadage, and K. A. I. Gunatunga, “Coconut oil insulated distribution transformer,” 8th Annual Conference of the IEEE Sri Lanka, 2001.
- S. Ranawana, C.M.B. Ekanayaka, N.A.S.A. Kurera, M.A.R.M. Fernando, and K. A. R. Perera, “Analysis of insulation characteristics of coconut oil as an alternative to the liquid insulation of power transformers,” IEEE International Conference In-dustrial and Information Systems (ICIIS), pp. 1-5, 2008.
- K. J. Rapp, J. Corkran, C. P. McShane, and T. A. Prevost, “Lightning impulse testing of natural ester fluid gaps and insulation interfaces,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 16, pp. 1595-1603, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2009.5361579
- Z. D. Wang, Q. Liu, X. Wang, P. Jarman, and G. Wilson, “Discussion on possible additions to IEC 60897 and IEC 61294 for insulating liquid tests,” IET Electric Power Applications, vol. 5, pp. 486-493, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-epa.2010.0209
- L. Rongsheng, C. Tornkvist, V. Chandramouli, O. Girlanda, and L. A. Pettersson, “Ester fluids as alternative for mineral oil: The difference in streamer velocity and LI breakdown voltage,” IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, CEIDP, 2009.
- R. Liu, C. Tornkvist, V. Chandramouli, O. Girlanda, and L. A. A. Pettersson, “Geometry impact on streamer propagation in transformer insulation liquids,” in Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), pp. 1-4, 2010.
- Q. Liu and Z. D. Wang, “Streamer characteristic and breakdown in synthetic and natural ester transformer liquids under standard lightning impulse voltage”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 18, pp. 285-294, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2011.5704520
- P. Rozga, M. Stanek, and D. Cieslinski, “Comparison of properties of electrical discharges developing in natural and synthetic ester at inception voltage”, IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), 2013.
- D. Vukovic, S. Tenbohlen, J. Harthun, C. Perrier, and H. Fink, "Breakdown strength of vegetable-based oils under AC and lightning impulse voltages," IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), 2011.
- O. Lesaint and G. Massala, "Positive streamer propagation in large oil gaps: experimental characterization of propagation modes," IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 5, pp. 360-370, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1109/94.689425
- C. T. Duy, O. Lesaint, A. Denat, N. Bonifaci, and Y. Bertrand, “Streamer propagation and breakdown in rape-seed oil at high voltage,” in IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids, ICDL, pp. 1-4, 2008.
- C. T. Duy, O. Lesaint, A. Denat, and N. Bonifaci, “Streamer propagation and breakdown in natural ester at high voltage,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 16, pp. 1582-1594, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2009.5361578
- Q. Liu and Z. D. Wang, “Breakdown and withstand strengths of ester transformer liquids in a quasiuniform field under impulse voltages,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, vol. 20, pp. 571-579, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2013.6508761
- Z. Zhaotao, L. Jian, Z. Pin, and S. Grzybowski, “Electrical properties of nano-modified insulating vegetable oil,” Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), 2010.
- Q. Liu, Z. D. Wang, and F. Perrot, “Impulse breakdown voltages of ester-based transformer oils determined by using different test methods,” IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), 2009.
- R. Bartnikas, "Engineering Dielectrics-Electrical Insulating Liquids," vol. III. Varennes, Canada: ASTM 1916 Race Street Philadelphia, 1994.
- V.Y. Ushakov, V.F. Klimkin, and S. M. Korobeynikov, “Impulse Breakdown of Liquids,” India: Springer, 2007.
- IEC 60897, “Methods for the determination of the lightning impulse breakdown voltage of insulating liquids,” International Electrotechnical Commission, 1987.
- Q. Liu, “Electrical Performance of Ester Liquids Under Impulse Voltage For Application In Power Transformers,” PhD Dissertation, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Manchester, 2011.
- W. Hauschild and W. Mosch, “Statistical Techniques for High-voltage Engineering,” Bristol, England: J.W.Arrowsmith Ltd., 1992.
- Ageing Study of Palm Oil and Coconut Oil in the Presence of Insulation Paper for Transformers Application vol.11, pp.4, 2018, https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11040532
- Pre-breakdown streamer propagation and breakdown characteristics of refined bleached and deodorized palm oil under lightning impulse voltage vol.25, pp.5, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2018.006894
- Statistical Analysis of Partial Discharge, Lightning Impulse and BDV Characteristics of Nano SiO2-Corn Oil for HV Insulation Applications vol.14, pp.2, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s42835-019-00095-z