The Impact of Transformational Leadership, Servant Leadership, and Followers' Regulatory Focus on Individual Creativity: The Mediation Effect of Intrinsic Motivation

변혁적 리더십 및 서번트 리더십과 조직 구성원의 조절 초점 성향이 개인 창의성에 미치는 영향: 내재적 동기의 매개효과

  • 권상집 (동국대학교 경영계열 경영학부)
  • Published : 2016.09.30


Although prior studies suggest that transformational leadership and servant leadership fuel followers' creativity, there is a few study on leadership style and followers' personality interaction. Based on regulatory focus theory, this study believe that interaction impacts of leadership styles and followers' regulatory focus differed in promotion focus and prevention focus employees' creativity. To strengthen causal process and rule out alternative results, this study conducted an experimental study using field employees. Participant were randomly assigned to four conditions (transformational leadership ${\times}$ promotion focus), (transformational leadership ${\times}$ prevention focus), (servant leadership ${\times}$ promotion focus), (servant leadership ${\times}$ prevention focus). The major results of this study suggest that (1) transformational leadership was positively related to promotion focus followers' intrinsic motivation and creativity, and was negatively related to prevention focus followers' intrinsic motivation and creativity. (2) Servant leadership, on the other hand, was positively related to promotion focus and prevention focus followers' motivation and creativity. (3) Intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between interaction effects of leadership style and follower's regulatory focus style and individual creativity. The results of this study demonstrated a remarkable differential impact based on a simple manipulation inducing feeling or thinking of a responsive situation. This research, measuring interaction impact of leadership and followers' regulatory focus in an experimental context, expands the leadership style and regulatory focus literature and provides future directions on leadership role in personality-related research domains.


Supported by : 성곡학술문화재단


  1. 권상집 (2015), 리더십 유형과 조직 구성원 애착 유형의 상호작용이 창의성에 미치는 차별화 효과: 임파워링 리더십과 서번트 리더십, 한국과학기술원 박사학위 논문.
  2. 권상집 (2016), 서번트 리더십이 조직 구성원의 지식공유와 창의성에 미치는 영향: 정서적 몰입 의 매개효과, 지식경영연구, 제17권, 1호, 89-109.
  3. 권정언.권상집 (2014), 안정그룹 애착이 개인 창의성에 미치는 영향, 지식경영연구, 제15권, 2호, 43-66.
  4. 김문주.이지예.윤정구 (2013), 리더와 구성원의 리더십 이중주: 팀에서 리더의 변혁적 리더십과 구성원의 변혁적 리더십의 상호작용, 지식경영연구, 제14권, 3호, 55-85.
  5. 김현진.설현도 (2014), 개인창의성과 집단창의성의 관계에서 통합능력과 지식공유의 매개효과, 지식경영연구, 제15권, 4호, 223-247.
  6. 장재윤.박영석 (2000), 창의적 작업환경 측정용 KEYS 척도의 타당화 연구: 한국 기업조직을 대상으로, 한국심리학회지: 산업 및 조직, 제13권, 1호, 61-90.
  7. 현지혜 (2012), 부하가 인지한 변혁적 리더십과 부하 간 Regulatory fit: 부하의 위험감수 행동 및 리더-부하 간 활력관계에 미치는 영향, 한국과학기술원 석사학위 논문.
  8. Amabile, T. M. (1988), A model of creativity and innovation in organizations. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol.10, pp.123-167). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
  9. Amabile, T. M. (1996), Creativity in context. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  10. Amabile, T. M., Conti, R., Coon, H., Lazenby, J., & Herron, M. (1996), Assessing the work enviroment for creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 1154-1184.
  11. Baer, M., Oldham, G. R., & Cummings, A. (2003), Rewarding creativity: When does it really matter? Leadership Quarterly, 14, 569-586.
  12. Barbuto, J. E., & Wheeler, D. W. (2006), Scale development and construct clarification of servant leadership. Group & Organizational Management, 31, 300-326.
  13. Bass, B. M. (1985), Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Philadelphia: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  14. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990), The implications of transformational and transactional leadership for individual, team, and organizational development. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4, 231-272.
  15. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1995), MLQ multifactor leadership questionnaire (2nd ed.). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden.
  16. Bono, J. E., & Judge, T. A. (2003), Selfconcordance at work: Toward understanding the motivational effects of transformational leaders. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 554-571.
  17. Brockner, J., & Hig g ins, E . T. (2001), Regulatory focus theory: Implications for the study of emotions at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86, 35-66.
  18. Brockner, J., Higgins, E. T., & Low, M. B. (2004), Regulatory focus theory and the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 203-220.
  19. Brown, M. E., Trevino, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005), Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 97, 117-134.
  20. Cesario, J., Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004), Regulatory fit and persuasion: Transfer from "feeling right". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 388-404.
  21. Cesario, J., Higgins, E. T., & Scholoer, A. A. (2007), Regulatory fit and persuasion: Basic principles and remaining questions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 444-463.
  22. Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997), Regulatory focus and strategic inclinations: Promotion and prevention in decisionmaking. Organizationa l Behav ior and Human Decision Processes, 69, 117-132.
  23. Davis, S. M. (1968), Entrepreneurial succession. Administrative Science Quarterly, 13, 402-416.
  24. De Cremer, D. (2006), Affective and motivational consequences of leader selfsacrifice: The moderating effect of autocratic leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 79-93.
  25. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.
  26. Ehrhart, M. G. (2004), Leadership and procedural justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology, 57, 61-94.
  27. Ehrhart, M. G., & Klein, K. J. (2001), Predicting followers' preferences for charismatic leadership: The influence of follower values and personality. Leadership Quarterly, 12, 153-179.
  28. George, J. M., & Zhou, J. (2001), When openness to experience and conscientiousness are related to creative behavior: An interactional approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 513-524.
  29. Grant, A. M., & Berry, J. W. (2011), The necessity of others is the mother of invention: Intrinsic and prosocial motivations, perspective taking, and creativity. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 73-96.
  30. Greenleaf. R. K. (1970), The servant as leader. Indianapolis: The Robert K. Greenleaf Center.
  31. Graham, J. W. (1991), Servant leadership in organizations: Inspirational and moral. Leadership Quarterly, 2, 105-119.
  32. Hayes, A. F. (2012), PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling [White paper], Retrieved from.
  33. Higgins, E. T. (1997), Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300.
  34. Higgins, E. T. (1998), Promotion and prevention regulatory focus as a motivation alprinciple. Advancesin Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 1-41.
  35. Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J. R., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994), Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 276-286.
  36. Hokwins, J. (2001), The creative economy: How people make money from ideas. London: Penguin Books.
  37. Hu, J., & Liden, R. C. (2011), Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: An examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 851-862.
  38. Judge, T. A., & Piccolo, R. F. (2004), Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 36-51.
  39. Kark. R., & Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003), The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 246-255.
  40. Kark, R., & Van Dijk, D. (2007), Motivation to lead, motivation to follow: The role of the self-regulatory focus in leadership processes. Academy of Management Review, 32, 500-528.
  41. Kirmani, A., Zhu, R. (2007), Vigilant against manipulation: The effect of regulatory focus on the use of persuasion knowledge. Journal of Marketing Research, 44, 688-701.
  42. Koestner, R., Ryan, R. M., Bernieri, F., & Holt, K. (1984), Setting limits on children' s behaivor: The differential effects of controlling vs. informational styles on intrinsic motivation and creativity. Journal of Personality, 52, 233-248.
  43. Lee, A. Y., & Aaker, J. L. (2004), Bring the frame into focus: The influence of regulatory fit on processing fluency and persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 205-218.
  44. Lee, A. Y., Aaker, J. L., & Gardner, W. L. (2000), The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: The role of interdependence in regulatory focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 1122-1134.
  45. Lee, S., & Thompson, L. (2011), Do agents negotiate for the best (or worst) interest of principles? Secure, anxious and avoidant principal-agent attachment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 681-684.
  46. Mayer, D. M., Aquino, K., Greenbaum, R. L., & Kuenzi, M. (2012), Who displays ethical leadership, and why does it matter? An examination of antecedents and consequences of ethical leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 151-171.
  47. Mayer, D. M., Bardes, M., & Piccolo, R. F. (2008), Do servant-leaders help satisfy follower needs? An organizational justice perspective. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 180-197.
  48. Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandeberghe, C. (2004), Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 991-1007.
  49. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007), Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamic, and change. New York: Guilford Press.
  50. Neubert, M. J., Kacmer, K. M., Carlson, D. S., Chonko, L. B., & Roberts, J. A. (2008), Regulatory focus as a mediator of the influence of initiating structure and servant leadership on employee behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1220-1233.
  51. Ng, K. Y., Koh, C. S. K., & Goh, H. C. (2008), The heart of the servant leader. Leader's motivation to serve and its impact on LMX and subordinates' extra-role behavior. In G. B. Graen & J. A. Graen (Eds.), Knowledged riven corporation-complex creative destruction (pp.125-144). Charlotte, NC: Information Age.
  52. O'Leary, B. S., Lindholm, M. L., Whitford, R. A., & Freeman, S. E. (2002), Selecting the best and brightest: Leveraging human capital. Human Resource Management, 41, 325-340.
  53. Peterson, S. J., Galvin, B. M., & Lange, D. (2012), CEO servant leadership: Exploring executive characteristics and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 65, 565-596.
  54. Pham, M. T., & Avnet, T. (2004), Ideals and oughts and the weighting of affect versus substance in persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 503-518,
  55. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990), Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and citizen behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-143.
  56. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008), Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879-891.
  57. Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004), Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 329-354.
  58. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000), Selfdetermination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
  59. Scott, S. G., & Bruce, R. A. (1994), Determinants of innovative behavior: A path model of individual innovation in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 580-607.
  60. Shah, J., Higgins, T., & Friedman, R. S. (1998), Performance incentives and means: How regulatory focus influences goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 285-293.
  61. Shin. S., Zhou. J. (2003), Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 703-714.
  62. Tierney, P., Farmer, S. M., & Graen, G. B. (1999), An examination of leadership and employee creativity: The relevance of traits and relationships. Personnel Psychology, 52, 591-620.
  63. Tost, L. P., Gino, F., & Larrick, R. P. (2013), When power makes others speechless: The negative impact of leader power on team performance. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 1465-1486.
  64. Tseng, H. C., & Kang, L. M. (2008), How does regulatory focus affect uncertainty towards organizational change? Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 29, 713-731.
  65. Van Dierendonck, D. (2011), Servant leadership: A review and synthesis. Journal of Management, 37, 1228-1261.
  66. Van Dierendonck, D., & Nujiten, I. (2011), The servant leadership survey: Development and validation of multidimensional measure. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26, 249-267.
  67. Van Dierendonck, D., Stam, D., Boersma, P., De Windt, N., Alkema, J. (2014), Same difference? Exploring the differential mechanisms linking servant leadership and transformational leadership to follower outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 25, 544-562.
  68. Wallace, J. C., & Chen, G. (2006), A multilevel integration of personality, climate, selfregulation, and performance. Personnel Psychology, 59, 529-557.
  69. Wu, C., McMullen, J., Neubert, M. J., & Yi, X. (2008), The influence of leader regulatory focus on employee creativity. Journal of Business Venturing, 23, 587-602.
  70. Yukl. G. (1999), An evaluation of conceptual weakness in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 285-305.
  71. Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010), Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 107-128.
  72. Zhou, J. (1998), Feedback valence, feedback style, task autonomy, and achievement orientation: Interactive effects on creative performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 261-276.
  73. Zhou, J., & Oldham, G. R. (2001), Enhancing creative performance: Effects of expected developmental assessment strategies and creative personality. Journal of Creative Behavior, 35, 151-167.