Quantitative Analysis of Display Fatigue induced by 2D, 3D Videos

2D와 3D 영상의 정량적 영상피로 비교

  • Received : 2016.01.29
  • Accepted : 2016.03.20
  • Published : 2016.03.28


This paper's objective is to investigate the display fatigue quantitatively according to watching 2D and 3D videos on the display. Though it has been known commonly that display fatigue by 3D is greater than one by 2D, there have been few researches with an aim to measure display fatigue scientifically. Flicker fusion frequency and cybersickness degree were measured before/after sixteen subjects(Male 8, Female 8) watch the 2D, 3D images. Two dependent variables affected by 2D and 3D videos were analyzed and compared statistically based on scientific evidences and researches. 3D showed a value 4 times as much as 2D in cybersickness increase rate, and the reduction rate of 3D was 2 times as much as that of 2D.


2D;3D;Display fatigue;Flicker fusion frequency;Cybersickness


  1. Hoffman, D. M., Girshick, A. R., Akeley, K., and Banks, M. S., "Vergence-accomodation conflicts hinder visual performance and cause visual fatigue", Journal of Vision, Vol. 8, No 33, pp. 1-30, 2008.
  2. Park Sang In, Whang Min Cheol, and Kim Jong Wha, "Autonomic nervous systems response to affected by 3D visual fatigue evoked during watching 3D TV", Korean Society for Emotion and Sensitivity, Vol. 14, No. 4. pp. 653-662, 2011.
  3. Kwon Sanghee and Bang Eunyoung, "Study on 3D pictures and human facts: Comparison of 2D and 3D receptions by measuring brainwaves", 2012 Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction Korea, pp. 943-947, 2012.
  4. Wee Sung Wook, "The analysis of factors inducing visual asthenopia with viewing 3D displays". M.D. thesis. The Chung-Aang University. 2013.
  5. Cho Sang-Hyun, "An analysis of visual discomfort caused by watching stereoscopic 3D content". Ph.D. dissertation. The Catholic University of Korea. 2014.
  6. Nichols, M. J., and Newsome, W. T., "The neurobiology of cognition", Nature, Vol. 402, pp. C35-C38, 1999.
  7. Kim Sun-uk and Han Seung Jo, "The relationship between visual stress and MBTI personality types", Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society, Vol. 13, No. 9, pp. 4036-4044, 2012.
  8. Jang Young Gun, "A study of web based screening for visual stress syndromes", Ergonomics Society of Korea, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 91-99, 2009.
  9. Howarth, P. A., and Costello, P. J., "The occurrence of virtual simulation sickness symptoms when an HMD was used as a personal viewing system", Displays, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp107-116, 1997.
  10. Han Seung Jo, "Effects of asymmetric load on low back and workers-oriented expert system for evaluating low back loading", Ph.D. dissertation, Dankook University, 2012.
  11. Han Seung Jo and Kim Sunuk, "The analysis of low back loading and muscle fatigue while lifting an asymmetric load", Journal of Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 30-36, 2002.
  12. Jang Han Jin and Noh Ki Young, "An experimental study of stereoscopic image and fatigue effect for 3D video game: linking cerebral physiologic measure", Journal of Korea Game Society, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 5-18, 2013.
  13. Kwon Junki, Kang Su-Yeon, and Kim Kyun-Hyung, "The ocular fatigue of watching three-dimensional images", J. Korean Ophthalmol Soc., Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 941-946, 2012.
  14. Yoon Jeong Ho, Lee Ikhan, Kim Taehyun, and Kim Jae-do, "Visual fatigue in watching 3 dimension television", J. Korean Oph. Opt. Soc., Vol. 17, No. 1, pp.47-52, 2012.
  15. Wickens, C. D., Lee, J. D., Lie, Y., and Becher, S. E. G., An introduction to human factors engineering (2nd ed), pp. 367-378, Prentice Hall, 2004.
  16. Kim Nam-jae, Ryu Seuc-ho, Kyung Byung-pyo, Lee Dong-yeol, Lee Wan-bok, "3D Character Production for Dialog Syntax-based Educational Contents Authoring System", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 69-75, 2010.
  17. Lee Myoun-Jae,"A Study on Game Production Education through Recent Trend Analysis of 3D Game Engine", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 15-20, 2013.
  18. Kim Jung In, "Research on the necessity of revision of product liability act", M.S.. thesis, Kyunghee University, 2015.
  19. Kham Keetaek, "The effect of individual differences on visual discomfort in watching 3D contents", The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 213-220, 2016.
  20. Corr, P. J., and Kumari, V., "Sociability/Impulsivity and attenuated dopaminergic arousal: Critical flicker/fusion frequency and procedural learning", Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 805-815, 1997.
  21. Corr, P. J., Pickering, A. D., and Gary, J. A., "Socialility/Impulsivity and caffeine-induced arousal: Critical flicker/fusion frequency and procedural learning", Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp713-730, 1995.