Analysis of Kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption trends among Korean adults: data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012)

  • Kim, Eun-Kyung (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Ha, Ae-Wha (Department of Food science and Nutrition, Dankook University) ;
  • Choi, Eun-Ok (World Institute of Kimchi) ;
  • Ju, Se-Young (Department of Food science and Nutrition, Dankook University)
  • Received : 2015.10.09
  • Accepted : 2015.11.23
  • Published : 2016.04.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to analyze daily kimchi, vegetable and fruit consumption by general characteristics and vegetable and fruit consumption from 1998 to 2012 by the Korean population based on the data of the KNHANES (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study is based on the 1998-2012 KNHNES. Analysis data on 54,700 subjects aged 19 years and older were obtained from health behavior interviews and the 24-hour dietary recall method. RESULTS: Daily kimchi consumption and portion size of kimchi decreased significantly from 1998 to 2012 (adjusted P for trend < 0.0001). Meanwhile, daily consumption of both non-salted vegetable and fruit with and without kimchi did not significantly change between 1998 and 2012. Reduced consumption of kimchi, non-salted vegetable, and fruit was observed for both genders as well as daily meal episodes and cooking locations. Male and female subjects with insufficient non-salted vegetable and fruit intake were increased 1.4 times and 1.3 times, respectively, in 2012 than 1998. All subjects consumed at least 400 g/day of non-salted vegetable, fruit, and kimchi in each survey year, although they consumed insufficient amounts (< 400 g/day) of non-salted vegetable and fruit without kimchi. CONCLUSIONS: Since Koreans generally consume high amounts of fermented vegetables, including kimchi, total vegetables and fruit. Consumption of these foods by the Korean adult population reached 400 g, which is the recommended intake of the WCRF/AICR. Based on this result, it is necessary to promote consumption of kimchi in the Korean population and research the development of low sodium kimchi in the future.


Supported by : World Institute of Kimchi


  1. Lee H, Yoon H, Ji Y, Kim H, Park H, Lee J, Shin H, Holzapfel W. Functional properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from kimchi. Int J Food Microbiol 2011;145:155-61.
  2. Cheigh HS, Park KY, Lee CY. Biochemical, microbiological, and nutritional aspects of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1994;34:175-203.
  3. Hwang HS, Han BR, Han BJ, Chung L. Korean Traditional Local Food Written by Three Generation. Paju: Kyomun Publishing Co.; 2010. p.1-300.
  4. Park JA, Tirupathi Pichiah PB, Yu JJ, Oh SH, Daily JW 3rd, Cha YS. Anti-obesity effect of kimchi fermented with Weissella koreensis OK1-6 as starter in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. J Appl Microbiol 2012;113:1507-16.
  5. Kim H, Oh SY, Kang MH, Kim KN, Kim Y, Chang N. Association between kimchi intake and asthma in Korean adults: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2011). J Med Food 2014;17:172-8.
  6. Wang Y, Li F, Wang Z, Qiu T, Shen Y, Wang M. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Lung Cancer 2015;88:124-30.
  7. Kim JH, Ryu JD, Lee HG, et al. The effect of kimchi on production of free radicals and anti-oxidative enzyme activities in the brain of SAM. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2002;31:117-23.
  8. Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, Daily JW 3rd. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food 2014;17:6-20.
  9. Choi EA, Chang HC. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a putative probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum EM isolated from kimchi. LWT -. Food Sci Technol (Campinas) 2015;62:210-7.
  10. Blanck HM, Gillespie C, Kimmons JE, Seymour JD, Serdula MK. Trends in fruit and vegetable consumption among U.S. men and women, 1994-2005. Prev Chronic Dis 2008;5:A35.
  11. Beck TK, Jensen S, Simmelsgaard SH, Kjeldsen C, Kidmose U. Consumer clusters in Denmark based on coarse vegetable intake frequency, explained by hedonics, socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle factors. A cross-sectional national survey. Appetite 2015;91:366-74.
  12. Vereecken C, Pedersen TP, Ojala K, Krolner R, Dzielska A, Ahluwalia N, Giacchi M, Kelly C. Fruit and vegetable consumption trends among adolescents from 2002 to 2010 in 33 countries. Eur J Public Health 2015;25 Suppl 2:16-9.
  13. Pollard C, Miller M, Woodman RJ, Meng R, Binns C. Changes in knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to fruit and vegetable consumption among Western Australian adults from 1995 to 2004. Am J Public Health 2009;99:355-61.
  14. Lee JS, Kim J. Vegetable intake in Korea: data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998, 2001 and 2005. Br J Nutr 2010;103:1499-506.
  15. Nakamura K, Nagata C, Oba S, Takatsuka N, Shimizu H. Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease are inversely associated in Japanese women but not in men. J Nutr 2008;138:1129-34.
  16. Suzuki R, Iwasaki M, Hara A, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Sawada N, Yamaji T, Shimazu T, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study Group. Fruit and vegetable intake and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Cancer Causes Control 2013;24:2117-28.
  17. Okuda N, Miura K, Okayama A, Okamura T, Abbott RD, Nishi N, Fujiyoshi A, Kita Y, Nakamura Y, Miyagawa N, Hayakawa T, Ohkubo T, Kiyohara Y, Ueshima H, Ueshima H, Okayama A, Okamura T, Saitoh S, Sakata K, Hozawa A, Hayakawa T, Nakamura Y, Matsumura Y, Nishi N, Okuda N, Kasagi F, Izumi T, Ojima T, Tamakoshi K, Nakagawa H, Kita Y, Nakamura Y, Yoshita K, Kadota A, Kodama K, Kiyohara Y; NIPPON DATA80 Research Group. Fruit and vegetable intake and mortality from cardiovascular disease in Japan: a 24-year follow-up of the NIPPON DATA80 Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2015;69:482-8.
  18. World Health Organization (CH), Food and Agricultur Organization (US). Total fat. In: Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. p.56.
  19. World Cancer Research Fund. American Institute for Cancer Research. Summary: Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: World Cancer Research Fund; 2007. p.9.
  20. Ministry of Health and Welfare. National Health Plan 2020. Seoul: Ministry of Health and Welfare; 2011. p.166.
  21. Moon SW, Lee MK, Lee TK. Kimchi intake patterns and preferences among elementary school, middle school, and high school students in rural areas - fucusing on the school in Chungbuk province-. Korean J Culinary Res 2011;17:142-54.
  22. Kim EJ, Choi W, Kuem SB. The effects of perceived value on consumer satisfaction and repurchase intention in packaged kimchi. J Hotel Resort 2012;11:355-75.
  23. Kim S, Kim MJ, Kim HJ, Song YO. Development and evaluation of kimchi menus for elementary school food service. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42:1148-56.
  24. Hwang IG, Kim HY, Hwang Y, Jeong HS, Lee JS, Kim HY, Yoo SM. Changes in quality characteristics of kimchi added with the fresh red pepper(Capsicum Annuum L.). Korean J Food Cookery Sci 2012;28:167-74.
  25. Jang MS, Seo KC, Nam KH, Park HY. Fermentation characteristics of cuttlefish kimchi with yogurt and vitamin C. Korean J Food Preserv 2012;19:774-82.
  26. Lim JH, Park SS, Jeong JW, Park KJ, Seo KH, Sung JM. Quality characteristics of kimchi fermented with abalone or sea tangle extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42:450-6.
  27. Kim HY, Kil JH, Park KY. Comparing the properties and functionality of kimchi made with Korean or Japanese Baechu cabbage and recipes. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42:520-6.
  28. Ko KH, Lui W, Lee HH, Yin J, Kim IC. Biological and functional characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in different kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42:89-95.
  29. Bong YJ, Jeong JK, Park KY. Fermentation properties and increased health functionality of kimchi by kimchi lactic acid bacteria starters. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2013;42:1717-26.
  30. Chang JY, Kim IC, Chang HC. Effect of solar salt on kimchi fermentation during long-term storage. Korean J Food Sci Technol 2014;46:456-64.
  31. Jung SJ, So BO, Shin SW, Noh SO, Jung ES, Chae SW. Physiochemical and quality characteristics of young radish (Yulmoo) kimchi cultivated by organic farming. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2014;43:1197-206.
  32. Ji Y, Kim H, Park H, Lee J, Lee H, Shin H, Kim B, Franz CM, Holzapfel WH. Functionality and safety of lactic bacterial strains from Korean kimchi. Food Control 2013;31:467-73.
  33. Lee KW, Cho MS. The development and validation of the Korean dietary pattern score(KDPS). Korean J Food Cult 2010;25:652-60.
  34. Cha HM, Han G, Chung HJ. A study on the trend analysis regarding the rice consumption of Korean adults using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1998, 2001 and 2005. Nutr Res Pract 2012;6:254-62.
  35. Lee S. Association of whole grain consumption with sociodemographic and eating behavior factors in a Korean population: based on 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Community Nutr 2011;16:353-63.
  36. Kim HJ, Park K. Egg consumption and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: based on 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Community Nutr 2011;16:364-74.
  37. Koo S, Park K. The association between consumption of processed meat and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: based on 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Korean J Nutr 2011;44:406-15.
  38. Kim BR. A study on the beef intake of the adults in Korea [master's thesis]. Daejeon: Woosong University; 2012.
  39. Chung CE, Lee KW, Cho MS. Effect of ramyen and noodles intake in diet & health Status of Koreans. Korean J Food Cult 2010;25:109-16.
  40. Hong SA, Kim K, Kim MK. Trends in the inequality of fruit and vegetable consumption between education levels indicated by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:942-9.
  41. Lee HS, Cho YH, Park J, Shin HR, Sung MK. Dietary intake of phytonutrients in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption in Korea. J Acad Nutr Diet 2013;113:1194-9.
  42. Youn E, Paik JK, Kim B. Utilization of Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database: estimation of tomato consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome. Food Eng Prog 2014;18:109-15.
  43. Kwon YS, Ju SY. Trends in nutrient intakes and consumption while eating-out among Korean adults based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998-2012) data. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8:670-8.
  44. Kwon JH, Park MK, Paik HY. Evaluation of fruits and vegetables intake for prevention of chronic disease in Korean adults aged 30 years and over: using the Third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES III). Korean J Nutr 2009;42:146-57.
  45. Lee SY, Song YO, Han ES, Han JS. Comparative study on dietary habits, food intakes, and serum lipid levels according to kimchi consumption in college students. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2012;41:351-61.
  46. Choi J, Moon HK. Comparison of dietary patterns by sex and urbanization in different economic status. Korean J Community Nutr 2008;13:346-58.
  47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Majority of Americans not meeting recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption. CDC issues first state by state report 2009 [Internet]. Available from:
  48. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. Current status and improvement of nutrition for institutional foodservice. In: Issue & Focus of health and Welfare. Sejong: Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs; 2012. p.1-8.

Cited by

  1. Relationship Between Plant Food (Fruits, Vegetables, and Kimchi) Consumption and the Prevalence of Rhinitis Among Korean Adults: Based on the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data vol.19, pp.12, 2016,
  2. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics vol.8, pp.9, 2016,
  3. Faith-based intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake among Koreans in the USA: a feasibility pilot vol.20, pp.02, 2017,
  4. Meal Types by Cooking Method Consumed by Korean Adults according to Meal Provision Place: Using 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey vol.33, pp.3, 2017,
  5. Health benefits of fermented foods pp.1549-7852, 2017,
  6. Intake of fruits and vegetables may modify the risk of cataract in Korean males: data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012 vol.51, pp.5, 2018,
  7. Consumption Status of Foods Using Kimchi by Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey vol.34, pp.3, 2018,
  8. Trends in incidence and survival of esophageal cancer in Korea: Analysis of the Korea Central Cancer Registry Database pp.08159319, 2018,