DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

  • Kim, Young-Nam (Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University) ;
  • Hwang, Ji Hyeon (Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University) ;
  • Cho, Youn-Ok (Department of Food and Nutrition, Duksung Women's University)
  • Received : 2015.12.01
  • Accepted : 2016.02.14
  • Published : 2016.04.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET group performed moderate exercise on a treadmill for 30 min/day, 5 days/week. At the end of week 5, each group was subdivided into 4 groups: non-exercise and 3 exercise groups. The non-exercise group (E0) was sacrificed without exercising and the 3 exercise groups were sacrificed immediately after exercising on a treadmill for 0.5 h (E0.5), 1 h (E1), and 2 h (E2). Blood samples were collected and plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ were analyzed. RESULTS: After exercise training, plasma folate level was significantly lower and vitamin $B_{12}$ concentration was significantly higher in the ET group compared with the NT group (P < 0.05). No significant associations were observed between plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ concentrations. In both the NT and ET groups, plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ were not significantly changed by increasing duration of aerobic exercise. Plasma folate concentration of E0.5 was significantly lower in the ET group compared with that in the NT group. Significantly higher vitamin $B_{12}$ concentrations were observed in the E0 and E0.5 groups of the ET group compared to those of the NT group. CONCLUSION: Regular moderate exercise training decreased plasma folate and increased plasma vitamin $B_{12}$ levels. However, no significant changes in plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$ concentrations were observed by increasing duration of acute aerobic exercise.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Duksung Women's University

References

  1. Woolf K, Manore MM. B-vitamins and exercise: does exercise alter requirements? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16:453-84. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.16.5.453
  2. Coyle EF. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:512S-520S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.2.512S
  3. Urhausen A, Weiler B, Coen B, Kindermann W. Plasma catecholamines during endurance exercise of different intensities as related to the individual anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1994;69:16-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00867921
  4. Williams RS, Neufer PD. Regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle by contractile activity. In: Rowell LB, Shepherd JT, editors. Handbook of Physiology. Section 12: Exercise: Regulation and Integration of Multiple Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1996. p.1124-50.
  5. Herrmann M, Schorr H, Obeid R, Scharhag J, Urhausen A, Kindermann W, Herrmann W. Homocysteine increases during endurance exercise. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003;41:1518-24.
  6. Takahashi-Iniguez T, Garcia-Hernandez E, Arreguin-Espinosa R, Flores ME. Role of vitamin $B_{12}$ on methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2012;13:423-37. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1100329
  7. Herrmann M, Wilkinson J, Schorr H, Obeid R, Georg T, Urhausen A, Scharhag J, Kindermann W, Herrmann W. Comparison of the influence of volume-oriented training and high-intensity interval training on serum homocysteine and its cofactors in young, healthy swimmers. Clin Chem Lab Med 2003;41:1525-31.
  8. Lira FS, Koyama CH, Yamashita AS, Rosa JC, Zanchi NE, Batista ML Jr, Seelaender MC. Chronic exercise decreases cytokine production in healthy rat skeletal muscle. Cell Biochem Funct 2009;27:458-61. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbf.1594
  9. Campbell PT, Gross MD, Potter JD, Schmitz KH, Duggan C, McTiernan A, Ulrich CM. Effect of exercise on oxidative stress: a 12-month randomized, controlled trial. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42:1448-53. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cfc908
  10. von Duvillard SP, Hamrm J, Lyerly GW, Moore JA, Durstine JL. Chapter 3. Utilization of fats in energy production. In: Wolinsky I, Driskell JA, editors. Sports Nutrition: Energy Metabolism and Exercise. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2008. p.47-62.
  11. Kim YN, Choi JY, Cho YO. Regular moderate exercise training can alter the urinary excretion of thiamin and riboflavin. Nutr Res Pract 2015;9:43-8. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2015.9.1.43
  12. Choi SK, Baek SH, Choi SW. The effects of endurance training and thiamine supplementation on anti-fatigue during exercise. J Exerc Nutrition Biochem 2013;17:189-98. https://doi.org/10.5717/jenb.2013.17.4.189
  13. Vallerand AL, Cuerrier JP, Shapcott D, Vallerand RJ, Gardiner PF. Influence of exercise training on tissue chromium concentrations in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:402-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/39.3.402
  14. Crozier PG, Cordain L, Sampson DA. Exercise-induced changes in plasma vitamin B-6 concentrations do not vary with exercise intensity. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:552-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/60.4.552
  15. Hyun T, Han YH, Lim EY. Blood folate level determined by a microplate reader and folate intake measure by a weighed food record. Korean J Community Nutr 1999;4:512-20.
  16. Forslund AH, Hambraeus L, van Beurden H, Holmback U, El-Khoury AE, Hjorth G, Olsson R, Stridsberg M, Wide L, Akerfeldt T, Regan M, Young VR. Inverse relationship between protein intake and plasma free amino acids in healthy men at physical exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2000;278:E857-67. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.2000.278.5.E857
  17. Blomstrand E, Saltin B. BCAA intake affects protein metabolism in muscle after but not during exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001;281:E365-74. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.2001.281.2.E365
  18. Mourtzakis M, Saltin B, Graham T, Pilegaard H. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2006;100:1822-30. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00571.2005
  19. Dohm GL, Beecher GR, Warren RQ, Williams RT. Influence of exercise on free amino acid concentrations in rat tissues. J Appl Physiol 1981;50:41-4. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1981.50.1.41
  20. Joubert LM, Manore MM. Exercise, nutrition, and homocysteine. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2006;16:341-61. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.16.4.341
  21. Jansson E, Kaijser L. Substrate utilization and enzymes in skeletal muscle of extremely endurance-trained men. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1987;62:999-1005. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1987.62.3.999
  22. Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM. Regulation of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during and after exercise. Annu Rev Nutr 1996;16:121-38. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.16.070196.001005
  23. Horowitz JF, Klein S. Lipid metabolism during endurance exercise. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:558S-563S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/72.2.558S
  24. Kenney WL, Wilmore JH, Costill DL. Chapter 2. Fuel for exercise: bioenergetics and muscle metabolism. In: Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 6th ed. Champaign (IL): Human Kinetics; 2015. p.51-72.
  25. Choi EY, Cho YO. The influence of different durations of aerobic exercise on fuel utilization, lactate level and antioxidant defense system in trained rats. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8:27-32. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2014.8.1.27
  26. Deminice R, Vannucchi H, Simoes-Ambrosio LM, Jordao AA. Creatine supplementation reduces increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 2011;111:2663-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1891-6
  27. Di Pasquale MG. Chapter 4. Utilization of proteins in energy metabolism. In: Wolinsky I, Driskell JA, editors. Sports Nutrition: Energy Metabolism and Exercise. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 2008. p.63-123.
  28. Bailey DM, Davies B, Baker J. Training in hypoxia: modulation of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:1058-66. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200006000-00004
  29. Deminice R, Rosa FT, Franco GS, da Cunha SF, de Freitas EC, Jordao AA. Short-term creatine supplementation does not reduce increased homocysteine concentration induced by acute exercise in humans. Eur J Nutr 2014;53:1355-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-013-0636-1
  30. Joubert LM, Manore MM. The role of physical activity level and B-vitamin status on blood homocysteine levels. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008;40:1923-31. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31817f36f9
  31. Randeva HS, Lewandowski KC, Drzewoski J, Brooke-Wavell K, O'Callaghan C, Czupryniak L, Hillhouse EW, Prelevic GM. Exercise decreases plasma total homocysteine in overweight young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4496-501. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2001-012056
  32. Konig D, Bisse E, Deibert P, Muller HM, Wieland H, Berg A. Influence of training volume and acute physical exercise on the homocysteine levels in endurance-trained men: interactions with plasma folate and vitamin $B_{12}$. Ann Nutr Metab 2003;47:114-8. https://doi.org/10.1159/000070032

Cited by

  1. High fat diet and exercise lead to a disrupted and pathogenic DNA methylome in mouse liver vol.12, pp.1, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1080/15592294.2016.1261239
  2. Pre-season dietary intake of professional soccer players vol.23, pp.4, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1177/0260106017737014