Ruminal microbial responses in fermentation characteristics and dry matter degradability to TDN level of total mixed ration

  • Lee, Seung-Uk (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Jo, Jin-Ho (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University) ;
  • Park, Sung-Kwon (Department of Food Science and Technology, Sejong University) ;
  • Choi, Chang-Weon (Department of Animal Resources, Daegu University) ;
  • Jeong, Jun (Livestock Research Center, National Agricultural Cooperative Federation) ;
  • Chung, Ki-Young (Hanwoo Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Chang, Sun-Sik (Hanwoo Research Institute, National Institute of Animal Science) ;
  • Li, Xiang Zi (Department of Animal Science, Yanji University) ;
  • Choi, Seong-Ho (Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University)
  • Received : 2015.10.18
  • Accepted : 2015.12.10
  • Published : 2016.03.31


An in vitro trial was conducted to examine the effects of total mixed rations (TMR) on fermentation characteristics and effective degradability (ED) by rumen microbes. Three TMR diets were growing period TMR (GR-TMR, 67% TDN), early fattening period TMR (EF-TMR, 75.4% TDN) and late fattening TMR (LF-TMR, 80% TDN). Three TMR diets (3 g of TMRs in each incubation bottles) was added to the mixed culture solution of stained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v) and incubated anaerobically for 48 hours at $39^{\circ}C$. The pH in all incubation solutions tended to decrease up to 48h, but the opposite results were found in concentration of total gas production, ammonia-N and total VFA in all incubations.The total gas production (p<0.05) in LF-TMR was highest compared with those of other diets. Also, concentration of total VFA was tended to increase in LF-TMR compared with other TMR diets in all incubations. The EDDM in both EF-TMR and LF-TMR was tended to high compared with GR-TMR (p=0.100). In this in vitro trials, concentration of propionate in all incubation solution was not affected by increased concentration of TDN. The results of the present in vitro study indicate that TMR may provide more favorable condition for nutrient digestion both in the rumen.


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis (13th Ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  2. Fawcett JK, Scott JE. 1960. A rapid precise method for the determination of urea. Journal of Clinical Pathology 13:156-163.
  3. Jin GL, Kim JK, Qin WZ, Jeong J, Jang SS, Shon YS, Choi CW, Song MK. 2012. Effect of feeding whole crop barley silage- or whole crop rye silage based-TMR and duration TMR feeding on growth, feed cost and meat characteristics of Hanwoo steers. Journal of Animal Science and Technology 54:111-124.
  4. Kaiser D, Weniger JH. 1994. In vivo and in vitro investigations for nutrient digestibility and heat production of ruminants under heat stress and different nutritional levels. V. Comparison of in vitro and in vivo investigations with respect to energy metabolism and energy content of rations. Archiv. Tierzucht 37:535-545.
  5. Li XZ, Long RJ, Yan CG, Choi SH, Jin GL, Song MK. 2010. Rumen microbial responses in fermentation characteristics and production of CLA and methane to linoleic acid in associated with alate or fumarate. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 155:132-139.
  6. Mcdougall EI. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. 1. The composition and Output of sheep's saliva. Biochemistry Journal 43:99-109.
  7. Minson DJ, McLoed MN. 1972. The in vitro technique; its modification for estimating digestibility of large numbers of tropical pasture samples. Division of Tropical Pastures Technical Paper No. 8. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Melbourne, Australia.
  8. Orskov ER, McDonald I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to the rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science 92:499-503.
  9. SAS. 1991. SAS / STAT User's Guide (Release6). SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.
  10. Song MK, Jin GL, Ji BJ, Chang SS, Jeong J. Smith SB, Choi SH. 2010. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M. longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil. Meat Science 85:210-214.
  11. Tafaj M, Zebeli Q, Junck B, Steingass H, Drochner W. 2005. Effects of particle size of a total mixed ration on in vivo ruminal fermentation patterns and inocula characteristics used for in vitro gas production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 123:139-154.
  12. Wang JH, Choi SH, Yan CG, Song MK. 2005. Effect of monensin and fish oil supplementation on bio-hydrogenation and CLA production by rumen bacteria in vitro when incubated with safflower oil. Asian-aust. Journal of Animal Science 18:221-225.