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Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India

  • Priyanka, R (Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Rao, Ashwini (Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Rajesh, Gururaghavendran (Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Shenoy, Ramya (Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University) ;
  • Pai, BH Mithun (Public Health Dentistry, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University)
  • Published : 2016.03.07

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Demographic details, stress factors experienced at work and nicotine dependency were the variables studied. The extent of stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and four law enforcement personnel participated in the study, among whom 68 had the presence of one or more habits like tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol use. The mean effort score was $15.8{\pm}4.10$ and the mean reward and mean overcommitment scores were $36.4{\pm}7.09$ and $17.8{\pm}5.32$ respectively. Effort/Reward ratio for the total participants was 1.0073 and for those with nicotine habit was 1.0850. Results of our study demonstrated no significant association between domains of ERI scale and presence of habits but work associated stress was associated with the presence of one or more habits. Compared to constables, head constables had 1.12 times higher risk of having a nicotine habit. Conclusions: Our study implies job designation is associated with nicotine habits. However, there was no association between work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore.

Keywords

Nicotine dependence;smoking;stress;law enforcement personnel;Mangalore

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