- Volume 17 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
Prevalence of Known Risk Factors in Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at Inmol Hospital, Lahore, Punjab
- Mansha, Muhammad (Division Science & Technology, University of Education, Township Campus) ;
- Saleem, Maryam (Division Science & Technology, University of Education, Township Campus) ;
- Wasim, Muhammad (Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Animal and Veterinary Sciences) ;
- Tariq, Muhammad (Division Science & Technology, University of Education, Township Campus)
- 발행 : 2016.03.07
Background: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide and its frequency is increasing gradually in many countries. Over the last three decades an increase in the breast cancer has been witnessed in the earlier low-risk Asian countries including Pakistan. Purpose: The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of known risk factors like early menarche, late menopause, socio economic, reproductive and demographic factors, among women diagnosed with breast cancer at INMOL hospital, Lahore, Punjab, as little information exists in this regard. Materials and Methods: A survey study was conducted on 200 women diagnosed with breast cancer who were seen at Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL) hospital, Lahore. A structured questionnaire was administered to these patients regarding the known risk factors through face to face interviews after obtaining appropriate consent. Results: Regarding non-modifiable risk factors, our study showed that majority of the breast cancer patients were diagnosed at 35-45 years (32.5%) or at older age (
Breast cancer;risk factors;menarche;menopause;demographic factors;INMOL hospital Lahore
- Abhidha M, Pamela AJ, Abhishek S, et al (2015). Passive Smoking and Breast Cancer - a Suspicious Link, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5715-9. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2015.16.14.5715
- Abbasis S, Azimi C, Othman F, et al (2009). Risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women, a case-control study. Int J Cancer Res, 46, 132-38.
- Anyanwu SN (2000). Breast cancer in Eastern Nigeria, a ten years review. West African J Med, 19, 120-5.
- Berstad P, Coates RJ, Bernstein L, et al (2010). A case-control study of body mass index and breast cancer risk in white and African-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 19, 1532-44. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0025
- Bhikoo R, Srinivasa S, Yu TC, et al (2011). Systematic review of breast cancer biology in developing countries (part 2), Asian subcontinent and South East Asia. Cancers, 3, 2382-401. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers3022382
- Bhurgri Y, Bhurgri A, Hassan SH et al (2000). Cancer incidence in Karachi, Pakistan, first results from Karachi Cancer Registry. Int J Cancer, 85, 325-9. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000201)85:3<325::AID-IJC5>3.0.CO;2-J
- Bhurgri Y (2004). Karachi cancer registry data--implications for the national cancer control program of pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 5, 77-82.
- Chen JG, Zhu J, Parkin D et al (2006). Trends in the incidence of cancer in Qidong, China. Int J Cancer, 119, 1447-54. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.21952
- Chen Y, Thompson W, Semenciw R et al (1999). Epidemiology of contralateral breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 8, 855-61.
- Clemons M, Goss P (2001). Estrogen and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med, 344, 276-85. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200101253440407
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008, GLOBOCAN 2008. Int J Cancer, 127, 2893-917 https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.25516
- Fregene A, Newman LA (2005). Breast cancer in sub-saharan africa, how does it relate to breast cancer in African-American women? Cancer, 103, 1540-50. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.20978
- Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al (2010). GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, cancer incidence and mortality worldwide, IARC Cancer Base No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer.
- Kumar S, Imam AM, Manzoor NF et al (2009). Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer among health care professionals at Aga Khan Hospital, Karachi. J Pak Med Association, 59, 474-78
- Karapanou O, Papadimitriou A (2010). Determinants of menarche. Rep biol endoc, 8, 115-22. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7827-8-115
- Lee BL, Liedke PE, Barrios CH, et al (2012). Breast cancer in Brazil, present status and future goals. Lancet Oncol, 13, 95-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70323-0
- Liede A, Malik IA, Aziz Z et al (2002). Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations to breast and ovarian cancer in Pakistan. Am J Hum Genet, 71, 595-606. https://doi.org/10.1086/342506
- Lord SJ, Bernstein L, Johnson KA et al (2008). Breast cancer and hormone receptor status in older women by parity, age of first birth, and breastfeeding, A case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 17, 1723-30. https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2824
- Lundy J (1994). Prophylactic mastectomy, An assessment of the key factors involved in decision- making, In Breast cancer, Controversies in management. Ed by Wise L. and Johnson H. Armonk, New York, Futura Publishing Company. Inc, 271.
- Mousavi SM, Mohaghegghi MA, Mousavi-Jerrahi A, et al (2006). Burden of breast cancer in Iran, a study of the Tehran population based cancer registry. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16, 5049-52.
- Norman P, Brain K (2005). An application of an extended health belief model to the prediction of breast self-examination among women with a family history of breast cancer. Br J Health Psychol, 10, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1348/135910704X24752
- Ogundiran TO, Huo D, Adenipekun A et al (2010). Case-control study of body size and breast cancer in Nigerian women. Am J Epidemiol, 172, 682-90 https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq180
- Parkin DM, Whelan S, Ferlay J et al (2005). Cancer incidence in five Continents.Vol.VIII IARC Scientific Publications No. 155. 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08, France.
- Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J et al (2005).Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108. https://doi.org/10.3322/canjclin.55.2.74
- Porter PL (2009). Global trends in breast cancer incidence and mortality. Salud Publica Mex, 51, 141-6. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0036-36342009000800003
- Puri S, Mangat C, Bhatia V et al (2009). Awareness of risk factors and aspects of breast cancer among North Indian women. Internet J Health, 8, 1-8.
- Rambau PF, Chalya PL, Manyama MM et al (2011). Pathological features of breast cancer seen in North-western Tanzania, a nine years retrospective study. BMC Res Notes, 4, 214-19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-4-214
- Sariego J (2010). Breast cancer in the young patient. Am Surg, 76, 1397-400.
- Sasco AJ. (2001). Epidemiology of breast cancer, an environmental disease? APMIS, 109, 321-32. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0463.2001.090501.x
- Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N et al (2011). What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer? The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 105, 460-5. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2011.250
- Saweer AAL, Yacoub F, Mohammed N et al (2003). The prevalence of risk factors among women diagnosed with breast cancer. Bahrain Medical Bulletin, 25, 1-6.
- Sprague BL, Trentham-Dietz A, Egan KM, et al (2008). Proportion of invasive breast cancer attributable to risk factors modifiable after menopause. Am J Epidemiol, 168, 404-11. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwn143
- Travis RC, Key TJ (2003). Oestrogen exposure and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res, 5, 239-47. https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr628
- Vorobiof DA, Sitas F, Vorobiof G (2001). Breast cancer incidence in South Africa. J Clin Oncol, 19, 25-127.
- Wrensch M, Chew T, Farren G et al (2003). Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates. Breast Cancer Res, 5, 88-102 https://doi.org/10.1186/bcr605
- Byrd-Bredbenner C, Beshgetoor D, Moe G (2012). Wardlaw's Perspectives in nutrition. 9th edition, Published by McGraw-Hill, USA.
- Zegeye DT, Megabia WB, Mulu A (2009). Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in Northwest Ethiopia. BMC Womens Health, 9, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-9-1
- Personality risk factors of occurrence of female breast cancer: a case-control study in China vol.23, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2018.1467022