Influence of Stress, Self-efficacy for Smoking Cessation, Smoking Temptation and Nicotine Dependency in Male College Students who Smoke

흡연 남자대학생의 스트레스, 금연에 대한 자기효능감 및 흡연유혹이 니코틴 의존도에 미치는 영향

  • Kim, Nam-Jo (Department of Nursing, Yeungjin College) ;
  • Hong, Hae-Sook (College of Nursing.Research Institute of Nursing Science Kyungpook National University)
  • 김남조 (영진전문대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 홍해숙 (경북대학교 간호대학.간호과학연구소)
  • Received : 2015.12.23
  • Accepted : 2016.02.04
  • Published : 2016.02.29


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress, self-efficacy for smoking cessation, smoking temptation, and nicotine dependency, and to identify factors influencing nicotine dependency among male college students who smoke. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey design was adopted for 283 male college students who smoke in D city, Korea. Data was analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and multiple regression using the SPSS 20.0 program. Results: The mean score of stress was $27.00{\pm}6.28$, self-efficacy for smoking cessation was $25.61{\pm}6.71$, smoking temptation was $53.87{\pm}11.02$, and nicotine dependency was $3.63{\pm}1.96$. There was a significant positive correlation between stress and nicotine dependency (r=.58, p<.001) and between smoking temptation and nicotine dependency (r=.59, p<.001). There was a significant negative correlation between self-efficacy for smoking cessation and nicotine dependency (r=-.59, p<.001). The significant factors influencing nicotine dependency were stress (${\beta}=.357$, p<.001), self-efficacy for smoking cessation (${\beta}=.359$, p<.001), and smoking temptation (${\beta}=.297$, p<.001). This model explained 60.3% of variance in nicotine dependency (F=105.59, p<.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that an intervention program is needed to reduce the perception of stress and smoking temptation, and to increase the ability of self-efficacy for smoking cessation among male college students who smoke with the intention to quit smoking.


  1. Moritsugu KP. The 2006 report of the surgeon general: The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke. American Journal of Prevention Medicine. 2007;32(6):542-543.
  2. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. Public Library of Science Medicine. 2006;3(11):e442.
  3. World Health Organization. Tobacco [internet]. Geneva: WHO Media centre; 2015 [cited 2015 Jul 6]. Available from:
  4. Urrutia I, Capelastegui A, Quintana JM, Muniozguren N, Basagana X, Sunyer J. Smoking habit, respiratory symptoms and lung function in young adults. European Journal of Public Health. 2005;15(2):160-165.
  5. Oliveira A, Barros H, Maciel MJ, Lopes C. Tobacco smoking and acute myocardial infarction in young adults: A population-based case-control study. Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2007;44(4):311-316.
  6. Jung YH. Lifetime cost of obesity and smoking and long-term effectiveness of health promotion. Final report. Seoul: Korea Health Institute for Health and Social Affairs & Management Center for Health Promotion; 2010 Dec. Report No.:10-37.
  7. Warren GW, Alberg AJ, Kraft AS, Cummings KM. The 2014 surgeon general's report: "The health consequences of smoking-50 years of progress": A paradigm shift in cancer care. Journal of Cancer. 2014;120(13):1914-1916.
  8. Yang BK. 2013 Health behavior and chronic disease statistics. Final report. Seoul: Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Korea National Health & Nutrition Examination; 2014 Feb. Report No.:11-1352159-0003130-1.
  9. Lee HS, Song MR. The effect of a quit smoking program using the web and short message service on exhaled carbon monoxide, self-efficacy and deprression according to nicotine dependency level in undergraduate students. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science. 2014;16(3):173-181.
  10. Carlson LE, Taenzer P, Koopmans J, Casebeer A. Predictive value of aspective of the transtheoretical modelon smoking cessation in a communicity-based, large-group cognitive behavioral program. Addictive Behaviors. 2003;28(4):725-740.
  11. Mustata A, Motohiro N, John G. Stress response dysregulation and stress-induced analgesia in nicotine dependent men and woman. Journal of Biological Psychology. 2013;93:1-8.
  12. Chang SO, Park CS. Analysis of smoking temptation, nicotine dependency, perceived health status corresponding to stage of change in smoking cessation in middle aged men. The Journal of Fundamentals of Nursing. 2001;8(1):69-80.
  13. Park SW, Kim JY. Validity of self-reported smoking using urinary cotinine among vocational high school students. Journal of Prevention Medicine Public Health. 2009;42(4):223-230.
  14. Kleinjan M, Visser AF, Engels R. Examining nicotine craving during abstinence among adolescent smokers: the roles of general perceived stress and temptation-coping strategies. Journal of Substance Use. 2012;17(3):249-259.
  15. Kim HS, Lee OJ, Yang NY. Affecting factors on smoking cessation of the university student. Korea Sport Research. 2006;17(6):1251-1260.
  16. Elfeddali I, Bolman C, Candel MJJM, Wiers RW. The role of self-efficacy, and preparatory planning in predicting short-term smoking ralapse. British Journal of Health Psychology. 2012;17:185-201.
  17. Chang SO, Kim EJ, Seomun KE, Lee SJ, Park CS. Comparison of influential variables for smoking temptation between adolescent and adult smokers. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2006;36(3):561-570.
  18. Lee HS, Song MR. Factors influencing nicotine dependency among college students intending to quit smoking. Journal of Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing. 2013;20(4):429-437.
  19. Cohen S, Kamarck, T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1984;24(4):385-396.
  20. Lee JH, Shin CM, Ko YH, Lim JH, Joe SH, Kim SH, et al. The reliability and validity studies of the Korean version of the perceived stress scale. Journal of Korean Psychosomatic Society. 2012;20(2):127-134.
  21. Velicer WF, DiClemente CC, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO. Relapse situation and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors. 1990;15(3):271-283.
  22. Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerström KO. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: A revision of the Fagerstrom tolerance questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction. 1991;86:1119-1127.
  23. Kim EK, Song MR. An analysis of the characteristics and preferences related to smoking cessation program among smoking college students. 2013;15(4):184-192.
  24. Lee JH. "Depress" University students increase.....stress more severe [Internet]. Los Angeles: Joongang JMnet USA; 2015 Sep 30 [cited 2015 Oct 1]. Available from:
  25. Park SW. A review of cigarette smoking-related behaviors and health problems among university students. Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion. 2011;28(5);35-49.
  26. Han DS, Ko MK, Kim DW, Kim IH, Kim YE. The effect of a cigarette smoking on smokers' stress. Korean Journal of Stress Research. 2007;15(3):171-176.
  27. Catriona M, Kate HW. Smoking-related attitudes and perceptions among young adults in Malta and the UK. Journal of Psychology, Health and Medicine. 2010;15(3):347-356.

Cited by

  1. Self-efficacy and Preparation of Smoking Cessation in Service and Sales Woman Smokers Working in Department Stores vol.25, pp.3, 2016,
  2. A Study on the Factors Related to Smoking and Smoking Conditions among College Students in Some Area vol.17, pp.8, 2016,