DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Evaluation of Melanoidins Formed from Black Garlic after Different Thermal Processing Steps

  • Kang, Ok-Ju (Department of Food, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University)
  • 투고 : 2016.11.08
  • 심사 : 2016.12.02
  • 발행 : 2016.12.31

초록

The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of melanoidins formed from black garlic (BG) after different thermal processing steps. The melanoidins formed from BG during thermal processing were produced in large amounts, and the initial (280 nm), intermediate (360 nm), and final stage product (420 nm) had similar tendencies. Compounds like degraded proteins, peptides, and phenolic acids were present in the melanoidins during thermal processing. All the melanoidin samples showed different absorptions in the UV-visible spectra, although these had similar shapes. Moreover, the carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of melanoidins formed from BG during thermal processing decreased initially, and then increased. However, the nitrogen content increased during thermal processing. As thermal processing progressed, the molecular weight of all the melanoidin samples showed increasing intensities, whereas the major peaks of each melanoidin sample had different retention times. Furthermore, the melanoidins formed from BG after different thermal processing steps contained -OH, -CH, amide I, and III groups. The crystallinity of the melanoidins was majorly formed at $31.58^{\circ}$ and $43.62^{\circ}$ ($2{\theta}$).

키워드

참고문헌

  1. Butt MS, Sultan MT, Butt MS, Iqbal J. 2009. Garlic: nature's protection against physiological threats. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 49: 538-551. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390802145344
  2. Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol 28: 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5
  3. Chang HL, Chen YC, Tan FJ. 2011. Antioxidative properties of a chitosan-glucose Maillard reaction product and its effect on pork qualities during refrigerated storage. Food Chem 124: 589-595. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.080
  4. Andriot I, Le Quere JL, Guichard E. 2004. Interactions between coffee melanoidins and flavour compounds: impact of freeze-drying (method and time) and roasting degree of coffee on melanoidins retention capacity. Food Chem 85: 289-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2003.07.007
  5. Charles-Bernard M, Kraehenbuehl K, Roberts DD. 2003. Interactions between volatile and non-volatile coffee components. In Melanoidins in Food and Health. Vegarud G, Morales FJ, eds. European Commission, Directorate-General for Research, Brussels, Belgium. Vol 4, p 51-58.
  6. Hofmann T, Czerny M, Calligaris S, Schieberle P. 2001. Model studies on the influence of coffee melanoidins on flavor volatiles of coffee beverages. J Agric Food Chem 49: 2382-2386. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0012042
  7. Hofmann T, Schieberle P. 2002. Chemical interactions between odor-active thiols and melanoidins involved in the aroma staling of coffee beverages. J Agric Food Chem 50: 319-326. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf010823n
  8. Obretenov C, Demyttenaere J, Tehrani KA, Adams A, Keršiene M, De Kimpe N. 2002. Flavor release in the presence of melanoidins prepared from L-(+)-ascorbic acid and amino acids. J Agric Food Chem 50: 4244-4250. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0200366
  9. Delgado-Andrade C, Morales FJ. 2005. Unraveling the contribution of melanoidins to the antioxidant activity of coffee brews. J Agric Food Chem 53: 1403-1407. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048500p
  10. Steinhart H, Luger A, Piost J. 2001. Antioxidative effect of coffee melanoidins. In 19eme Colloque Scientifique International surle Cafe. Association Scientifique Internationale du Cafe. Trieste, Italy.
  11. Wen X, Takenaka M, Murata M, Homma S. 2004. Antioxidative activity of a zinc-chelating substance in coffee. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 68: 2313-2318. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.68.2313
  12. Morales FJ, Fernandez-Fraguas C, Jimenez-Perez S. 2005. Iron-binding ability of melanoidins from food and model systems. Food Chem 90: 821-827. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.030
  13. Cämmerer B, Kroh LW. 1995. Investigation of the influence of reaction conditions on the elementary composition of melanoidins. Food Chem 53: 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)95786-6
  14. Cämmerer B, Jalyschko W, Kroh LW. 2002. Intact carbohydrate structures as part of the melanoidin skeleton. J Agric Food Chem 50: 2083-2087. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011106w
  15. Heyns K, Hauber R. 1970. Strukturermittlung spezifisch $^{14}C$-markierter sorbosebraunungspolymerisate durch thermische fragmentierung. Justus Liebigs Ann Chem 733: 159-169. https://doi.org/10.1002/jlac.19707330117
  16. Tressl R, Wondrak GT, Garbe LA, Kruger RP, Rewicki D. 1998. Pentoses and hexoses as sources of new melanoidin-like Maillard polymers. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1765-1776. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970973r
  17. Hofmann T. 1998. Studies on melanoidin-type colorants generated from the Maillard reaction of protein-bound lysine and furan-2-carboxaldehyde-chemical characterisation of a red coloured domaine. Eur Food Res Technol 206: 251-258.
  18. Kato H, Tsuchida H. 1981. Estimation of melanoidin structure by pyrolysis and oxidation. Prog Food Nutr Sci 5: 147-156.ill.
  19. Renn PT, Sathe SK. 1997. Effects of pH, temperature, and reactant molar ratio on L-leucine and D-glucose Maillard browning reaction in an aqueous system. J Agric Food Chem 45: 3782-3787. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf9608231
  20. Morales FJ, Jimenez-Perez S. 2004. Peroxyl radical scavenging activity of melanoidins in aqueous systems. Eur Food Res Technol 218: 515-520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-004-0896-3
  21. Fogliano V, Monti SM, Musella T, Randazzo G, Ritieni A. 1999. Formation of coloured Maillard reaction products in a gluten-glucose model system. Food Chem 66: 293-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00058-8
  22. Nursten HE. The Maillard reaction: hemistry, biochemistry and implications. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. p 2-4.
  23. Bekedam EK, Schols HA, van Boekel MA, Smit G. 2006. High molecular weight melanoidins from coffee brew. J Agric Food Chem 54: 7658-7666. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0615449
  24. Borrelli RC, Visconti A, Mennella C, Anese M, Fogliano V. 2002. Chemical characterization and antioxidant properties of coffee melanoidins. J Agric Food Chem 50: 6527-6533. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf025686o
  25. Kim JS, Lee YS. 2008. Effect of reaction pH on enolization and racemization reactions of glucose and fructose on heating with amino acid enantiomers and formation of melanoidins as result of the Maillard reaction. Food Chem 108: 582-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.014
  26. Rafik M, Mas A, Elharfi A, Schue F. 1997. Decoloration de solutions sucrees par ultrafiltration sur une membrane a base de poly(organocyclophosphazene). Eur Polym J 33: 679-690. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(96)00232-7
  27. Clark AV, Tannenbaum SR. 1970. Isolation and characterization of pigments from protein-carbonyl browning systems. Isolation, purification, and properties. J Agric Food Chem 18: 891-894. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60171a040
  28. Bekedam EK, Loots MJ, Schols HA, Van Boekel MAJS, Smit G. 2008. Roasting effects on formation mechanisms of coffee brew melanoidins. J Agric Food Chem 56: 7138-7145. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800999a
  29. Hofmann T. 1998. Studies on the relationship between molecular weight and the color potency of fractions obtained by thermal treatment of glucose/amino acid and glucose/protein solutions by using ultracentrifugation and color dilution techniques. J Agric Food Chem 46: 3891-3895. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980397e
  30. Clark AV, Tannenbaum SR. 1974. Isolation and characterization of pigments from protein-carbonyl browning systems. Models for two insulin-glucose pigments. J Agric Food Chem 22: 1089-1093.
  31. Rubinsztain Y, Ioselis P, Ikan R, Aizenshtat Z. 1984. Investigations on the structural units of melanoidins. Org Geochem 6: 791-804. https://doi.org/10.1016/0146-6380(84)90101-3
  32. Fang JM, Fowler PA, Sayers C, Williams PA. 2004. The chemical modification of a range of starches under aqueous reaction conditions. Carbohydr Polym 55: 283-289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2003.10.003
  33. Mucha M, Miśkiewicz D. 2000. Chitosan blends as fillers for paper. J Appl Polym Sci 77: 3210-3215.
  34. Sannan T, Kurita K, Ogura K, Iwakura Y. 1978. Studies on chitin: 7. IR spectroscopic determination of degree of deacetylation. Polymer 19: 458-459. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(78)90256-2
  35. Goheen SM, Wool RP. 1991. Degradation of polyethylene-starch blends in soil. J Appl Polym Sci 42: 2691-2701. https://doi.org/10.1002/app.1991.070421007

피인용 문헌

  1. Physicochemical Properties, Biological Activity, Health Benefits, and General Limitations of Aged Black Garlic: A Review vol.22, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22060919
  2. Beneficial Effects of an Aged Black Garlic Extract in the Metabolic and Vascular Alterations Induced by a High Fat/Sucrose Diet in Male Rats vol.11, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010153