Anti-inflammatory Effect of Lactuca sativa L. Extract in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Improvement of Lipid Levels in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

상추 추출물(Lactuca sativa L.)의 혈관내피세포에서 항염증 작용과 고지방 식이 생쥐에서 혈중 지질농도 개선에 미치는 영향

  • Hwang-Bo, Jeon (Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Jang, Kyung Ok (Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Chung, Hayoung (Cosmogen Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Park, Jong-Hwa (Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Lee, Tae Hoon (Graduate School of East-West Medicinal Science Kyung Hee University) ;
  • Kim, Jiyoung (Cosmogen Co. Ltd.) ;
  • Chung, In Sik (Dept. of Genetic Engineering and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University)
  • 황보전 (경희대학교 생명공학원 유전공학과) ;
  • 장경옥 (경희대학교 생명공학원 유전공학과) ;
  • 정하영 ((주)코스모젠) ;
  • 박종화 (경희대학교 생명공학원 유전공학과) ;
  • 이태훈 (경희대학교 동서의학대학원) ;
  • 김지영 ((주)코스모젠) ;
  • 정인식 (경희대학교 생명공학원 유전공학과)
  • Received : 2016.10.18
  • Accepted : 2016.12.13
  • Published : 2016.12.31


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) extract on the inflammation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and blood lipid improvement in hypercholesterolemic mice fed a high cholesterol diet. The lettuce extract (100% ethanol extract) inhibited the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in HUVEC treated with tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$). The lettuce extract suppressed the adhesion of THP-1 to TNF-${\alpha}$-treated HUVEC. The lettuce extract decreased the TNF-${\alpha}$-stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein 1. In hypercholesterolemic mice, the lettuce extract reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, while the lettuce extract elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level, resulting in the decrease of atherogenic index and cardiac risk factor level. These results suggested that lettuce extract can be an useful resource to show an anti-inflammatory effect and improve lipid metabolism.


lettuce extract;inflammation;hypercholesterolemia;lipid metabolism


Supported by : 중소기업청


  1. Bhatt A, Rohatgi A. 2016. HDL Cholesterol efflux capacity: cardiovascular risk factor and potential therapeutic target. Curr Atheroscler Rep 18:2
  2. Chang TY, Chang CC, Ohgami N, Yamauchi Y. 2006. Cholesterol sensing, trafficking, and esterification. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 22:129-157
  3. Chang TY, Li BL, Chang CC, Urano Y. 2009. Acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferases. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E1-9
  4. Durstine JL, Haskell WL. 1994. Effects of exercise training on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 22:477-522
  5. Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y, Ali F. 2016. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a review of initiators and protective factors. Inflammopharmacology 24:1-10
  6. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. 1972. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18:499-502
  7. Hwang SJ, Ballantyne CM, Sharrett AR, Smith LC, Davis CE, Gotto AM Jr, Boerwinkle E. 1997. Circulating adhesion molecules VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in carotid atherosclerosis and incident coronary heart disease cases: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 96:4219-4225
  8. Hwang-Bo J, Yoo KH, Park JH, Jeong HS, Chung IS. 2012. Recombinant canstatin inhibits angiopoietin-1-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Int J Cancer 131:298-309
  9. Ikonen E. 2008. Cellular cholesterol trafficking and compartmentalization. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:125-138
  10. Jang TO, Bang MH, Song MC, Hong YH, Kim JY, Chung DK, Jang T, Kwon BM, Kim YK, Lee HS, Kim IH, Baek NI. 2003. Development of biologically active compound from edible plant sources - V. Phytol ACAT (acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase) inhibitory diterpenoid from the leaves of Lactuca sativa L. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 46:66-68
  11. Jung EB, Shin MK. 1990. Hyang Yak Dae Sa Jun, Young Lim Sa, Seoul, Korea, pp. 1060
  12. Jung MA, Cho SH, Lee SY, Kim, JH, Oh K, Kim YS, Yoo GS, Lee, DW, Kim S. 2014. Effects of unripe Rubus coreanus miquel extract on improvement of lipid metabolism in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43:650-655
  13. Lee CH, Yi HS, Kim JE, Heo SK, Cha CM, Won CW, Park SD. 2009. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect of fractionated extracts of Smilacis glabrae rhizoma in human umbilical vein endothelial cell. Kor J Herbology 24:39-50
  14. Lee E, Choi MY. 2000. Effect of pine needle on lipid composition and TBARS in rat fed high cholesterol. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32:1186-1190
  15. Ma J, Liu W, Yan X, Wang Q, Zhao Q, Xue Y, Ren H, Wu L, Cheng Y, Li S, Miao L, Yao L, Zhang J. 2012. Inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis by up-regulating NDRG2 expression in breast cancer cells. PLoS One 7:e32368
  16. McKenney JM. 2001. Lipid management: tools for getting to the goal. Am J Manag Care 7:S299-306
  17. Nam MH, Lee HS, Hong CO, Koo YC, Seomun Y, Lee KW. 2010. Preventive effects of Rosa rugosa root extract on advanced glycation end product-induced endothelial dysfunction. Korean J Food Sci Technol 43:210-216
  18. Park SH, Jang MJ, Hong JH, Rhee SJ, Choi KH, Park MR. 2007. Effects of mulberry leaf extract feeding on lipid status of rats fed high cholesterol diets. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 36:43-50
  19. Park YS, Kang SS, Choi HJ, Yang SJ, Shon HH, Seo HH, Jeong JM. 2014. Effect of mulberry (Morus alba L.) extract on blood flow improvement. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43:498-506
  20. Ren YL, Zhou YW, Ye YH. 2004. Chemical components of Lactuca and their bioactivites. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica 39:954-960
  21. Rosenfeld L. 1989. Lipoprotein Analysis: Early Methods in the Diagnosis of Atherosclerosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 113:1101-1110
  22. Sima AV, Stancu CS, Simionescu M. 2009. Vascular endothelium in atherosclerosis. Cell Tissue Res 335:191-203
  23. Tall AR. 1990. Plasma high density lipoproteins: metabolism and relationship to atherogenesis. J Clin Invest 86:379-384
  24. Utsumi K, Kawabe M, Hirama A, Ueda K, Kamada Y, Arii K, Komaba Y, Katsura K, Iino Y, Katayama Y. 2007. Effects of selective LDL apheresis on plasma concentrations of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and P-selectin in diabetic patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans and receiving maintenance hemodialysis. Clin Chim Acta 377:198-200
  25. White CR, Goldberg DI, Anantharamaiah GM. 2015. Recent developments in modulating atherogenic lipoproteins. Curr Opin Lipidol 26:369-375
  26. Zhou Y, Ling EA, Dheen ST. 2007. Dexamethasone suppresses monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 production via mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 dependent inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in activated rat microglia. J Neurochem 102:667-678