The Influence of Transformational Leadership on Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior-Mediating Effect of Organizational Identification

변혁적 리더십이 비윤리적 친조직 행동에 미치는 영향 -조직 동일시의 매개 효과

  • Lee, Kang-Min (Development Group, SAMSUNG SDS) ;
  • Choo, Shi-Gak (School of Mechanical and ICT Convergence Engineering, Sunmoon University) ;
  • Jeon, Sang-Gil (College of Business and Economics, Hanyang University(ERICA))
  • Received : 2015.12.23
  • Accepted : 2016.02.20
  • Published : 2016.02.28


This study attempted to test not only the influence of transformational leadership(TFL) on employees' unethical pro-organizational behavior(UPB), but also the mediating effect of organizational identification(OID) between TFL and employees' UPB. This study employed two research methods: literature review and empirical testing of the developed hypotheses. Data were collected through online questionnaire instruments from 229 employees working at companies in Korea. To test the hypotheses, structural equation modeling was employed. The model is shown as adequately fitting to the data. The results showed that there was not a positive and statistically significant relationship between TFL and employees' UPB, and OID played as a mediator in the relationship between TFL and employees' UPB. These findings provide a meaningful implication that the positive impact of TFL is linked to employees' UPB through OID.


  1. Effelsberg, D., Sloga, M., & Gurt, J., Transformational Leadership and Follower's Unethical Behavior for the Benefit of the Company: A Two-Study Investigation, Journal of Business Ethics, 120(1), pp. 88-93, 2014.
  2. Graham, K. A., Ziegert, J. C., & Capitano, J., The effect of leadership style, framing, and promotion regulatory focus on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 126(3), pp. 423-436, 2015.
  3. Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P., Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior, Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp. 181-217, 1999.
  4. Chun-Bok, A., & Dae-Hyok, Y., The Effect of Recognition about Ethical Management on the Willingness for Whistle-Blowing, Corporate Image and Organizational Performance, Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 20(3), pp. 231-257, 2013.
  5. Young-Bok, K., & Man-Kee C., An Empirical Study of Corporate Ethical Management, Perceived Image, and Perceived Stakeholders Favorable Response, Journal of Business Research, 26(4), pp. 113-142, 2011.
  6. Eun-Young, C., A Study on Convergence Relation of Corporate Ethical Management, Consumers' Perceived Trust, and Purchasing Behavior, Journal of Digital Convergence, 13(8), pp. 113-121, 2015.
  7. Hee-La Y., & Hyung-Ryong L., A Study on the Effects of Ethical Management in Hospitality Industry upon Employee's Team Commitment, Turnover Intention - Focused on Mediating Effect of Person-organization Fit, Journal of Foodservice Management, 17(4), pp. 395-422, 2014.
  8. Jin-Hwan, H., & Keyong-Hwa, Y., The Moderating Effect of Corporate Governance between Management of Ethics and Firm Performance, Journal of Digital Convergence, 10(2), pp. 133-140, 2012.
  9. Yun-Ji, M., Ju-Hee, H., & Min-Jeong, K., Individual and Situational Factors affecting Employees' Ethical Behaviors : Focusing on the Moderating Effects of Organizational Trust and Firm Size, Korea Journal of Business Administration, 25(6), pp. 2787-2808, 2012.
  10. Trevino, L. K., & Brown, M. E., The role of leaders in influencing unethical behavior in the workplace, Managing organizational deviance, SAGE Publications, pp. 69-87, 2005.
  11. Burns, J. M., Leadership, Harper & Row, 1978.
  12. Bass, B. M., Leadership and performance beyond expectations, Free Press; Collier Macmillan, 1985.
  13. Bass, B. M., Transformational leadership: Industrial, military, and educational impact, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1998.
  14. Bass, B. M., & Bass R., The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications, 4th ed., Free Press, 2008.
  15. Umphress, E. E., Bingham, J. B., & Mitchell, M. S., Unethical behavior in the name of the company: The moderating effect organizational identification and positive reciprocity beliefs on unethical pro-organizational behavior, Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, pp. 769-780, 2010.
  16. Jones, T. M., Ethical decision making by individuals in organization: An issue-contingent model, Academy of Management Review, 16, pp. 366-395, 1991.
  17. Brief, A. P., & Motowidlo, S. J., Prosocial organizational behavior, Academy of Management Review, 11, pp. 710-725, 1986.
  18. Sackett, P. R., The structure of counterproductive work behavior: Dimensionality and relationships with facets of job performance, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10, 5-11, 2002.
  19. Avolio, B. J., Full leadership development: Building the vital forces in organizations, Sage, 1999.
  20. Kemper, T. D., Representative roles and the legitimation of deviance, Social Problems, 13(3), pp. 288-298, 1966.
  21. Brown, M. E., Trevino, L. K., & Harrison, D. A., Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing, Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 97(2), pp. 117-134, 2005.
  22. Bandura, A., Social learning theory, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1977.
  23. Graham, K. A., Ziegert, J. C., & Capitano, J., The Effect of Leadership Style, Framing, and Promotion Regulatory Focus on Unethical Pro-Organizational Behavior, Journal of Business Ethics, 126(3), pp. 423-436, 2015.
  24. Konovsky, M. A. & Pugh, S. D., Citizenship behavior and social exchange, Academy of Management Journal, 37, pp. 656-669, 1994.
  25. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G., Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Critical Review of the Theoretical and Empirical Literature and Suggestions for Future Research, Journal of Management, 26, pp. 513-563, 2000.
  26. Armstrong, A., & Muenjohn, N., The ethical dimension in transformational leadership, Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics, 3(3), pp. 21-35, 2008.
  27. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R., Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors, The Leadership Quarterly, 1(2), pp. 107-142, 1990.
  28. Jae-Hee, P., The Effect of Organizational Identification on Hotel Employee' Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, 11(1), pp. 75-87, 2009.
  29. Mael, F. A. & Ashforth, B. E., Loyal From Day One: Biodata, Organizational Identification, and Turnover Among Newcomers, Personnel psychology, 48(2), pp. 309-333, 1995.
  30. Cheney, G., On the various changing meanings of organization membership: A field study of organizational identification, Communication Monographs, 50, pp. 342-362, 1983.
  31. Tompkins, P. K., & Tompkins, E. V., Apollo, Challenger, Columbia: The Decline of the Space Program, A Study in Organizational Communication, Roxbury Publishing Company: Los Angeles, California, 2005.
  32. Bartels, J., Peters, O., de Jong, M., Pruyn, A., & van der Molen, M., Horizontal and vertical communication as determinants of professional and organizational identification, Personnel Review, 39, pp. 210-226, 2010.
  33. He, H., & Brown, A. D., Organizational Identity and Organizational Identification: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Future Research, Group & Organization Management, 38(I), pp. 3-35, 2013.
  34. Ashforth, B. E., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G., Identification in organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions, Journal of Management, 34, pp. 325-374, 2008.
  35. Riketta, M., Organizational identification: A meta-analysis, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, pp. 358-384, 2005.
  36. Hirst, G., van Dick, R., & van Knippenberg, D., A social identity perspective on leadership and employee creativity, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 30, pp. 963-982, 2009.
  37. Madjar, N., Greenberg, E., & Chen, Z., Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, pp. 730-743, 2011.
  38. Edwards, M. R., & Peccei, R., Perceived organizational support, organizational identification, and employee outcomes: Testing a simultaneous multifoci model, Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(1), pp. 17-26, 2010.
  39. Bergami, M., & Bagozz, R. P., Self-categorization, affective commitment and group self-esteem as distinct aspects of social identity in the organization, British Journal of Social Psychology, 39(40), pp. 555-577, 2000.
  40. Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E., Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2), pp. 103-123, 1992.
  41. Olkkonen, ME., & Lipponen, J., Relationships between organizational justice, identification with organization and work unit, and group-related outcomes, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 100(2), pp. 202-215, 2006.
  42. Zhu, W., Sosik, J. J., Riggio, R. E., & Yang, B., Relationships between Transformational and Active Transactional Leadership and Followers' Organizational Identification: The Role of Psychological Empowerment, Journal of Behavioral and Applied, pp. 186-212, 2012.
  43. Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R., The moderating role of individual differences in the relation between transformational/transactional leadership perceptions and organizational identification, The Leadership Quarterly, 16(4), pp. 569-589, 2005.
  44. De Cremer, D. & van Knippenberg, D., How do leaders promote cooperation? The effects of charisma and procedural fairness, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(5), pp. 858-866, 2002.
  45. Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G., The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency, Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), pp. 246-255, 2003.
  46. Blader, S. L., & Tyler, T. R., Testing and Extending the Group Engagement Model: Linkages Between Social Identity, Procedural Justice, Economic Outcomes, and Extrarole Behavior, Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), pp. 445-464, 2009.
  47. van Dick, R., van Knippenberg, D., Kerschreiter, R., Hertel, G., & Wieseke, J., Interactive effects of work group and organizational identification on job satisfaction and extra-role behavior, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, pp. 388-399, 2008.
  48. Hye-Kyoung, K., & Ung-Hee, L., Linking ethical leadership to followers' behaviors-Moderating role of psychological ownership in the effect of ethical leadership on followers' behaviors, Journal of Digital Convergence, 12(10), pp. 109-119, 2014.
  49. Wang-Seon, K., Seung-Yeon, S., & Won-Ho, J., The Effect of Ethical Leadership on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Deviant Behaviors - The Mediating Role of Leader Satisfaction and Moderating effect of Political Skill, Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 22(1), pp. 121-145, 2015.
  50. Bandura, A., Modeling theory: Some traditions, trends, and disputes, Recent trends in social learning theory, New York: Academic Press, 1972.
  51. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F., Social identity theory and the organization, Academy of Management Review, 14(1), pp. 20-39, 1989.
  52. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C., The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup Behavior, In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of Intergroup Relations, pp. 6-24, Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1985.
  53. Edwards, M. R., Organizational identification: A conceptual and operational review, International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), pp. 207-230, 2005.
  54. Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., & Zhu, W., How transformational leadership weaves its influence on individual job performance: The role of identification and efficacy beliefs, Personnel Psychology, 61(4), pp. 793-825, 2008.
  55. Walumbwa, F. O., & Hartnell, C. A., Understanding transformational leadership-employee performance links: The role of relational identification and self-efficacy, Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(1), pp. 153-172, 2011.
  56. Dong-Min, Y., & Duk-Sup, S., The Effects of Transformational Leadership on In-Role Behavior, OCB and Innovative Behavior: The Mediating Effects of Personal Identification and Social Identification, Korean Management Review, 42(1), pp. 121-152, 2013.
  57. Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B., The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory, Organizational Science, 4, pp. 1-17, 1993.
  58. Salanova, M., Lorente, L., Chambel, M. J., & Mart?nez, I. M., Linking transformational leadership to nurses' extra?role performance: the mediating role of self?efficacy and work engagement, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(10), pp. 2256-2266, 2011.
  59. Robbins, S. P. & Judge, T. A., Organizational Behavior, 15th ed., Prentice Hall, pp. 382-383, 2012.
  60. Bass, B. M., From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision, Organizational Dynamics, pp. 21-22, 1990.
  61. Hwa-Yong, L., A Study on the Influence of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Effectiveness, Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Kyunghee University Graduate School, 2004.
  62. Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J., Multifactor leadership questionnaire, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1990.
  63. Min-Young K., & Jin-Mo, K., The Causal Relationships among Organizational Learning, Transformative Leadership, Learning Culture and Social Networks in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Journal of Agricultural Education and Human Resource Development, 46(1), pp. 113-140, 2014.
  64. Won-Hyung, K., Cross Validation Model of Organizational Identification: Relation of Organizational Identification and Antecedents, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Involvement, Journal of Human Resource Management Research, 27(1), pp. 1-31, 2003.
  65. Dong-Sun, L., The Effect of Delegation and Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Identification and Contextual Performance Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Kwangwoon University Graduate School, 37, 2010.
  66. Kyu-Man, L., The Relationship between Organizational Identification and Employee's Behavior: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Organizational Support, 23(3), pp. 1671-1685, 2010.
  67. Ganster, D. C., Hennessey, H. W., & Luthuans, F., Social Desirability Response Effects: Three Alternative Models, Academy of Management Journal, 26(2), pp. 321-331, 1983.
  68. Paulhus, D. L., Two-Component Models of Socially Desirable Responding, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(3), pp. 598-609, 1984.
  69. Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S., Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, San Diego: Academic Press, pp. 17-59, 1991.
  70. Crown, D. P., The experimental study of personality, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1979.
  71. Holden, R. R., & Fekken, G. C., Three common social desirability scales: Friends, acquaintances, or strangers?, Journal of Research in Personality, 23, pp. 180-191, 1989.
  72. Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D., Illusion and well-being: A social-psychological perspective on mental health, Psychological Bulletin, 103, pp. 193-210, 1988.
  73. Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C. S., Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies, Health Psychology, 4, pp. 219-247, 1985.
  74. Yong-Seok, K., Soo-Mi, J., & Pyoung-Soon, Y., Reliability and Validity of the Korean Version of the Social Desirability Scale-17, Korean journal of social welfare studies, 38, pp. 5-32, 2008.
  75. Stober, J., The social desirability scale-17(SDS-17): Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and relationship with age, European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17(3), pp. 222-232, 2001.
  76. Singh, J., & Rhoads, G. K., Boundary Role Ambiguity in Marketing-Oriented Positions: A Multidimensional, Multifaceted Operationalization, Journal of Marketing Research, 28(August), pp. 328-338, 1991.
  77. Hak-Sik L., Marketing Research, JypHyunJae Publishing Co., pp. 202, 2012.
  78. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E., Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed., Pearson, pp. 664-673, 2010.
  79. Won-Woo P., Mee-Sook, K., Sang-Myung, J., & Kyu-Mann, H., Causes and Remedies of Common Method Bias, Korean Journal of Management, 15(1), pp. 89-133, 2007.
  80. Ilie, A., Unethical Pro-Organizational Behaviors: Antecedents and Boundary Conditions, Graduate Theses and Dissertations, University of South Florida Graduate School, 2012.
  81. Seung-Hyun, B., & Mi-Sun, K., Antecedents of Unethical Behavior and Organizational Commitment, Korean Business Education Review, 42, pp. 65-96, 2006.
  82. Jun-Ho, J., & Kyung-Il, H., Impact of Supervisor's Leadership Styles on Organizational Citizenship Behavior : Mediation Effects of Multi-dimensional Measure of Justice in the Service Industry, 13(3), pp. 75-84, 2015.
  83. So-Yeon Park, Kyoung-Young Park, "Correlation Study of Characteristics of Bio-medical Ethics and Self-esteem For Undergraduate Students", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 255-261, 2015.
  84. Kyoung-A Chung, Ji-Hyun Cho, "Differences between Major Satisfaction, University Life Adjustment, Self-Esteem and Career Identity according to the Time of Department Selection of Students in the Department of Occupational Therapy at One University", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 143-155, 2015.