Input and Output Budgets for Nitrogen of Paddy Field in South Korea

  • Received : 2015.12.30
  • Accepted : 2016.02.26
  • Published : 2016.02.29


The main objective of this research was to estimate the total mass of nitrogen discharged from various sources in paddy field area of South Korea in 2010 and 2013. Input and output budgets for nitrogen were estimated by mass balance approach. The mass balance approach reduces the effect of flow variations, and the large scale approach minimizes local effects, resulting in easier and faster establishment of strategy for nonpoint pollution problems. Nitrogen inputs were chemical fertilizer, compost, atmospheric deposition, biological fixation, and agricultural water, while crop uptake, denitrification, volatilization, and infiltration were nitrogen outputs. The estimated total nitrogen inputs for paddy field in South Korea were $266,211ton\;yr^{-1}$, $260,729ton\;yr^{-1}$, while those of total nitrogen outputs were $168,463ton\;yr^{-1}$, $164,994ton\;yr^{-1}$ in 2010 and 2013, respectively. Annual amounts of potential nitrogen outflow from paddy field were $97,748ton\;yr^{-1}$, $95,735ton\;yr^{-1}$ in 2010 and 2013. Also, annual rate of potential nitrogen outflow were 36.7%, 36.7% in 2010 and 2013, respectively.


Grant : Research Program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development

Supported by : National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration


  1. Bashkin, V.N., S.U. Park, M.S. Choi, and C.B. Lee. 2002. Nitrogen budgets for the Republic of Korea and the Yellow Sea region. Biogeochem. 57(58):387-403.
  2. Han, K.H. 2011. Characteristics of Non-Point Sources Pollutant Loads at Paddy Plot Located at the Valley Watershed during Irrigation Periods. Kor. Comm. Irrig. Drain. 18(1):94-102.
  3. Kim, M.K., K.A. Roh, N.J. Lee, M.C. Seo, and M.H. Koh. 2005. Nutrient Load Balance in Large-Scale Paddy Fields during Rice Cultivation. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert., 38(3):164-171.
  4. Kyaw, K.M., K. Toyota, M. Okazaki, T. Motobayashi, and H. Tanaka. 2005. Nitrogen balance in a paddy field planted with whole crop rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kusahonami) during two rice-growing seasons. Biol. Fertil. Soils. 42:72-82.
  5. Leip, A., W. Britz, F. Weiss, and W. Vries. 2011. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI. Environ. Pollut. 159:3243-3253.
  6. Li, Z., M. Liu, X. Wua, F. Han, and T. Zhang. 2010. Effects of long-term chemical fertilization and organic amendments on dynamics of soil organic C and total N in paddy soil derived from barren land in subtropical China. Soil Till. Res. 106:268-274.
  7. Nam, Y.H., S.W. An, M.S. Jung, and J.W., Park. 2012. Nitrogen budgets of agriculture and livestock in South Korea at 2010. J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng. 34:204-213.
  8. Nam, Y.H., S.W. An, and J.W. Park. 2011. Nitrogen Budget of South Korea in 2008: Evaluation of Non-point Source Pollution and $N_2O$ Emission. J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng. 33(2):103-112.
  9. NIER(National Institute of Environmental Research). 2012. Nitrogen budget of south korea and management plan.
  10. RDA-NAAS(National Academy of Agricultural Science). 2001. Evaluation study on environmental affects by fertilizer use in cultivation lands, Sam-Mi press. pp. 3-46.
  11. RDA-NAAS(National Academy of Agricultural Science). 2010. Fertilizer application recommendations for crops. Sangrok press. pp.16-18.
  12. RDA-NAAS(National Academy of Agricultural Science). 2013. Monitoring project on agri-environment quality. Sam-Mi press. pp.82-87.
  13. Roh, K.A., M.K. Kim, B.M. Lee, N.J. Lee, M.C. Seo, and M.H. Koh. 2005. Assessment of nitrogen impaction on watershed by rice cultivation. Korean J. Environ. Agric. 24(3):270-279.
  14. Roh, K.A., M.K. Kim, B.G. Ko, G.Y. Kim, K.M. Shim, and D.B. Lee. 2009. Estimation of rice cultivation impacts on water environment with environmental characteristics and agricultural practices by nitrogen balances. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 42(6):439-446.
  15. Shin, J.H., C.W. Yoo, Y.S. An, J.W. Park. 2014. 2011 Nitrogen budget of South Korea including nitrogen oxides in gas phase, J. Kor. Soc. Environ. Eng. 36(2):75-83.
  16. Song, J.H., M.S. Kang, I.H. Song, and J.R. Jang. 2012. Comparing Farming Methods in Pollutant runoff loads from Paddy Fields using the CREAMS-PADDY Model. Korean J. Environ. Agric. 31(4):318-327.
  17. Statistics Korea. 2014. Korean Statistical Information Service.
  18. Yan, X., Z. Cai, R. Yang, C. Ti, Y. Xia, F. Li, J. Wang, and A. Ma. 2011. Nitrogen budget and riverine nitrogen output in a rice paddy dominated agricultural watershed in eastern China. Biogeochem. 106:489-501.