Characteristics of Wet Distillers Grains on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Its Effects on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Hanwoo Steers

  • Ahn, Gyu Chul (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Kwak, Hyung Jun (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University) ;
  • Oh, Young Kyoon (National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Lee, Yoo Kyung (National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Jang, Sun Sik (National Institute of Animal Science, RDA) ;
  • Lee, Sang Suk (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Sunchon National University) ;
  • Park, Keun Kyu (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Konkuk University)
  • 투고 : 2015.08.12
  • 심사 : 2015.11.04
  • 발행 : 2016.04.01


Two experiments were conducted to determine the nutrient composition, in vitro ruminal ammonia concentrations and pH of wet distillers grains (WDG, produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%) and to evaluate dietary effects of fermented total mixed ration (TMR) using WDG on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers from mid fattening to slaughter. In Exp. I, average dry matter (DM), crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and nitrogen free extract of seven WDG samples from an ethanol plant with different sampling dates were 19.9%, 24.8%, 3.8%, 21.8%, 8.87%, 60.3%, 34.5%, and 40.7% (DM basis), respectively. For in vitro ammonia concentrations and pH, each sample was assigned to 7 incubation times (0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h). Linear increase was observed between 12 and 48 h for ammonia concentrations, but final ammonia concentrations (72 h) were not significantly different among WDG samples and fermentation patterns of WDG samples showed similar tendency. In vitro pH varied among treatments from 0 to 24 h, but were not different statistically after 48 h. In Exp. II, 45 Hanwoo steers of 23 months ($641{\pm}123kg$) from mid fattening period to slaughter (248 days) were randomly divided into three groups of 15 pens each (five repetitions/each treatment) and assigned to one of three dietary treatments; i) Control (TMR), ii) WDG 15 (TMR containing 15% of WDG, as fed basis) and iii) WDG 28 (TMR containing 28% of WDG, as fed basis). The body weight (BW), ADG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of control and WDG 15 and 28 during 248 days were 760.8, 740.1, and 765.5 kg, and 0.50, 0.50, and 0.52 kg/d, and 18.6, 17.6, and 17.1, respectively. The dry matter intake (DMI) (kg/d) of control (9.11) was higher (p<0.05) than WDG treatments (WDG 15%, 8.57; 28%, 8.70). Nevertheless, DMI did not affect BW, ADG, and FCR of Hanwoo finishing steers. Blood metabolites were in normal ranges and were not different among treatments except the albumin concentration. In carcass characteristics, WDG 15 (30%) showed higher frequency of A-carcass yield grade than WDG 28 (15%) and control (7%), and WDG 28 (61%) showed higher frequency of $1^{{+}{+}}$ and $1^+$-carcass quality grade than WDG 15 (40%) and control (60%). In conclusion, using WDG up to 28% in TMR did not show any negative effect on the performance and blood metabolites, and improved carcass quality of Hanwoo steers. Therefore, WDG can be a useful feed ingredient for Hanwoo steers in mid-fattening period to slaughter.


연구 과제 주관 기관 : Rural Development Administration


  1. Abrams, S. M., T. J. Klopfenstein, R. A. Stock, R. A. Britton, and M. L. Nelson. 1983. Preservation of wet distillers grains and its value as a protein source for growing ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 57:729-738.
  2. AOAC. 1999. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Association Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  3. Buckmaster, D. R., P. G. Gunn, S. L. Lake, R. P. Lemenager, and M. C. Claeys. 2008. Co-ensiling of wet distillers grains. Presentation no. 083645. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Meeting, Providence, RI, USA.
  4. Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130-132.
  5. Conrad, H. R., W. P. Weiss, W. O. Odwongo, and W. L. Shockey. 1984. Estimating net energy lactation from components of cell solubles and cell walls. J. Dairy Sci. 67:427-436.
  6. Dooley, F. J., M. Cox, and L. Cox. 2008. Distillers grain handbook: A guide for Indiana producers to using DDGS for animal feed. A report for the Indiana Corn Marketing Council. Accessed July 17, 2008.
  7. Ham, G. A., R. A. Stock, T. J. Klopfenstein, E. M. Larson, D. H. Shain, and R. P. Huffman. 1994. Wet corn distillers byproducts compared with dried corn distillers grains with solubles as a source of protein and energy for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 72:3246-3257.
  8. Huntington, G., M. Poore, B. Hopkins, and J. Spears. 2001. Effect of ruminal protein degradability on growth and N metabolism in growing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 79:533-541.
  9. Itabashi, H., T. Kobashi, A. Takenaka, and M. Matsumoto. 1991. Influence of Ethanol on ruminal microbes and Fermentation pattern hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids, and Meat quality of beef cattle. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Nutrition Herbivores, Penang, Malaysis. pp.73.
  10. Kim, I. Y., G. C. Ahn, H. J. Kwak, Y. K. Lee, Y. K. Oh, S. S. Lee, J. H. Kim, and K. K. Park. 2015. Characteristics of wet and dried distillers grains on in vitro ruminal fermentation and effects of dietary wet distillers grains on performance of Hanwoo steers. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:632-638.
  11. Klopfenstein, T. J., G. E. Erickson, and V. R. Bremer. 2008. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Use of distillers by-products in the beef cattle feeding industry. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1223-1231.
  12. Korean Carcass Grading Standard. 2010. Bremer. 2008. National Livestock Co-operatives Federation, Seoul, Korea.
  13. Lee, J. M., J. H. Choe, H. J. Jin, T. I. Kim, B. Y. Park, D. Y. Hwang, K. C. Koh, C. J. Kim, and K. S. Hwang. 2012. Effect of marbling score on carcass grade factors, physico-chemical and sensory traits of M. Longissimus Dorsi in Hanwoo. Korean J. Food Sci. Anim. 32:659-668.
  14. Liu, KeShun. 2011. Chemical composition of distillers grains, a review. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:1508-1526.
  15. May, M. L., J. Quinn, N. DiLorenzo, and M. L. Galyean. 2010. Effects of roughage and wet distillers grains with solubles in steam-flaked corn-based substrates on feedlot cattle performance and carcass characteristics. In Proc. Plains Nutr. Council Spring Conf. AREC 10-57, Texas AgriLife Res. and Ext. Center, Amarillo, TX, USA. 107 p.
  16. McDougall, E. I. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. I. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99-109.
  17. NIAS (National Institute of Animal Science). 2012. Korean Feeding Standard for Hanwoo. 3rd Ed. Rural Development Administration, Jeonju, Korea.
  18. Owens, F. N., D. S. Secrist, W. J. Hill, and D. R. Gill. 1998. Acidosis in cattle: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 76:275-286.
  19. Quinn, M. J., M. L. May. N. DiLorenzo, C. H. Ponece, D. R. Smith, S. L. Parr, and M. L. Galyean. 2011. Effects of roughage source and distillers grain concentration on beef cattle finishing performance, carcass characteristics, and in vitro fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2631-2642.
  20. Rouse, G. and A. Trenkle. 1980. Stillage from grain alcohol and a feed source for cattle. A. S. Leaflet R307. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA, USA. pp. 1-2.
  21. SAS Institute. 2002. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Ver. 9.03 ed. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  22. Scharf, B., J. A. Carroll, D. G. Riley, C. C. Chase, Jr., S. W. Coleman, D. H. Keisler, R. L. Weaber, and D. E. Spiers. 2010. Evaluation of physiological and blood serum differences in heat-tolerant (Romosinuano) and heat-susceptible (Angus) Bos taurus cattle during controlled heat challenge. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2321-2336.
  23. Shurson, J. and S. Noll. 2005. Feed and Alternative Uses for DDGS. In: Proceeding of the 2005 Energy from Agriculture Conference, St. Louis, MO, USA. pp. 14-15.
  24. Statistics Korea. Accessed July 1, 2015.
  25. Stock, R. and T. Klopfenstein. 1982. Feeding value of distillers grains for ruminants. In: Feed and Fuel from Ethanol Production Symposium (Ed. R. A. Parsons). Northeast Regional Agric. Engineering Service Publ. 17. Ithaca, NY, USA.
  26. Tilley, J. M. A. and A. R. Terry. 1963. A two stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci. 18:104-111.
  27. Van Soest, P. J. 1989. On the digestibility of bound N in distillers grains: A reanalysis. Proc. Cornell Nutrition Conf. Ithaca, NY, USA. 44:127-135.
  28. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
  29. Waldo, G., Nuez Ortin, and Peiqiang Yu. 2009. Nutrient variation and availability of wheat DDGS, corn DDGS and blend DDGS from bioethanol plants. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89:1754-1761.
  30. Waller, J., T. Klopfenstein, and M. Poos. 1980. Distillers feeds as protein sources for growing ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 51:1154-1167.
  31. Weiss, W. P., D. O. Ericson, G. M. Ericson, and G. R. Fisher. 1989. Barley distillers grains as a protein supplement for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:980-987.
  32. Xu, C. C., Y. Cai, J. G. Zhang, and M. Ogawa. 2007. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1024-1029.