Effects of Steroid Hormone in Avian Follicles

  • Caicedo Rivas, R.E. (Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology and malacology, School of Biology, Autonomous University of Puebla) ;
  • Nieto, M. Paz-Calderon (Laboratory of Reproductive Endocrinology and malacology, School of Biology, Autonomous University of Puebla) ;
  • Kamiyoshi, M. (Department of Animal Production and Utilization Sciences, the United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Gifu University)
  • Received : 2015.04.09
  • Accepted : 2015.06.11
  • Published : 2016.04.01


The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of testosterone (T) and estradiol-$17{\beta}$ ($E_2$) on the production of progesterone ($P_4$) by granulosa cells, and of the $E_2$ on the production of $P_4$ and T by theca internal cells. In the first experiment, granulosa cells isolated from the largest ($F_1$) and third largest ($F_3$) preovulatory follicle were incubated for 4 h in short-term culture system, $P_4$ production by granulosa cells of both $F_1$ and $F_3$ was increased in a dose-dependent manner by ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH), but not T or $E_2$. In the second experiment, $F_1$ and $F_3$ granulosa cells cultured for 48 h in the developed monolayer culture system were recultured for an additional 48 h with increasing doses of various physiological active substances existing in the ovary, including T and $E_2$. Basal $P_4$ production for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of the cultured was about nine fold greater by $F_1$ granulosa cells than by $F_3$ granulosa cells. In substances examined oLH, chicken vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (cVIP) and T, but not $E_2$, stimulated in a dose-dependent manner $P_4$ production in both $F_1$ and $F_3$ granulosa cells. In addition, when the time course of $P_4$ production by $F_1$ granulosa cells in response to oLH, cVIP, T and $E_2$ was examined for 48 h during 48 to 96 h of culture, although $E_2$ had no effect on $P_4$ production by granulosa cells of $F_1$ during the period from 48 to 96 h of culture, $P_4$ production with oLH was found to be increased at 4 h of the culture, with a maximal 9.14 fold level at 6 h. By contrast, $P_4$ production with cVIP and T increased significantly (p<0.05) from 8 and 12 h of the culture, respectively, with maximal 6.50 fold response at 12 h and 6, 48 fold responses at 36 h. Furthermore, when $F_1$ granulosa cells were precultured with $E_2$ for various times before 4 h culture with oLH at 96 h of culture, the increase in $P_4$ production in response to oLH with a dose-related manner was only found at a pretreatment time of more than 12 h. In the third experiment, theca internal cells of $F_1$, $F_2$ and the largest third to fifth preovulatory follicles ($F_{3-5}$) were incubated for 4 h in short-term culture system with increasing doses of $E_2$. The production of $P_4$ and T by theca internal cells were increased with the addition of $E_2$ of $10^{-6}M$. These increases were greater in smaller follicles. These results indicate that, in granulosa cells of the hen, T may have a direct stimulatory action in the long term on $P_4$ production, and on $E_2$ in long-term action which may enhance the sensitivity to LH for $P_4$ production, and thus, in theca internal cells, $E_2$ in short term action may stimulate the production of $P_4$ and T.


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