Analysis of tail flip of the target prawn at the time of penetrating mesh in water flow by tank experiments

  • KIM, Yonghae (Institute of Marine Industry, College of Marine Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • GORDON, Malcolm S. (Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of California)
  • Received : 2016.09.22
  • Accepted : 2016.11.10
  • Published : 2016.11.30


The tail flip of the decapod shrimp is a main feature in escaping behavior from the mesh of the codend in the trawl. The characteristics of tail flip in target prawn was observed and analyzed in a water tunnel in respect of flow condition and mesh penetration by a high speed video camera (500 fps). The tail bending angle or bending time in static water was significantly different than in flow water (0.7 m/s) and resultantly the angular velocity in static water was significantly higher than in flow water when carapace was fixed condition. When escaping through vertical traverse net panel in water flow the relative moving angle and relative passing angle to flow direction during tail flip, it significantly decreases the number of shrimps escaping than the case of blocking shrimp. The bending angles of tail flip between net blocking and passing through mesh were not significantly different while the bending time of shrimp passing through mesh was significantly longer than when shrimp blocking on the net. Accordingly the angular velocity of passing through mesh was significantly slower than blocking on the net although the angular velocity of the tail flip was not significantly related with carapace length. The main feature of tail flip for mesh penetration was considered as smaller diagonal direction as moving and passing angle in relation to net panel as right angle to flow direction rather than the angular velocity of tail flip.


Supported by : Gyeongsang National University


  1. Allen A, Hewitt R and Venrick E. 2005. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. Reports 46. LA. CA. USA. p.176.
  2. Arnott SA, Neil DM and Ansell AD. 1998. Tail-flip mechanism and size-dependent kinematics of escape swimming in the brown shrimp Crangon crangon. J Exp Biol 201, 1771-1784.
  3. Arnott SA, Neil DM and Ansell AD. 1999. Escape trajectories of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon J, and a theoretical consideration of initial escape angles from predators. J Exp Biol 202, 193-209.
  4. Briggs RP. 1986. A general review of mesh selection for Nephrops norvegicus (L). Fish Res 4, 59-73.
  5. Broadhurst MK. 2000. Modifications to reduce bycatch in prawn trawls: A review and framework for development. Rev Fish Biol & Fish 10, 27-60. (DOI:10.1023/A:1008936820089)
  6. Broadhurst MK, Kennelly SJ and Eayrs S. 1999. Flow-related effects in prawn-trawl codend: potential for increasing the escape of unwanted fish through square-mesh panels. Fish Bull 97, 1-8.
  7. Broadhurst MK, Sterling DJ and Millar RB. 2015. Increasing lateral mesh openings in Penaeid trawls to improve selection and reduce drag. Fish Res 170, 68-75. (DOI:10.1016/j.fishres.2015.05.014)
  8. Catchpole TL and Revill AS. 2008. Gear technology in Nephrops trawl fisheries. Rev Fish Biol & Fish 18, 17-31. (DOI:10.1007/s11160-007-9061-y)
  9. Daniel TL and Meyhofer E. 1989. Size limits in escape locomotion of Carridean shrimp. J Exp Biol 143, 245-265.
  10. Herberholz JM, Sen MM and Edwards DH. 2004. Escape behavior and escape circuit activation in juvenile crayfish during prey-predator interactions. J Exp Biol 207, 1855-1863. (DOI:10.1242/jeb.00992)
  11. Jensen GC. 2014. Crabs and Shrimps of the Pacific coast. Molamrine. Bremerton, WA. USA. 174-175.
  12. Kim YH and Gordon MS. 2010. Swimming and posture control of common carp when penetrating mesh nets in a water tunnel. Fish Res 102, 166-172. (DOI:10.1016/j.fishres.2009.11.009)
  13. Kim YH and Gordon MS. 2016. Experimental studies of behavior of target prawns (Sicyonia penicillata) approaching and contacting netting panels in water tunnel. (in preparation)
  14. Nauen JC and Shadwick RE. 1999. The scaling of acceleratory aquatic locomotion: Body size and tail-flip performance of the California spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. J Exp Biol 202, 3181-3193.
  15. Nauen JC and Shadwick RE. 2001. The dynamics and scaling of force production during the tail-flip escape response of the California spiny lobster Panulirus. J Exp Biol 204, 1817-1830.
  16. Newland PL and Chapman CJ. 1989. The swimming and orientation behavior of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L), in relation to trawling. Fish Res 8, 63-80.
  17. Newland PL, Neil DM and Chapman CJ. 1992. Escape swimming in the Norway Lobster. J Crustacean Biol 12, 342-353.
  18. Webb PW. 1979. Mechanics of escape responses in crayfish (Orconectes virilis). J Exp Boil 79, 245-263.
  19. Wine JJ and Krasne FB. 1972. The organization of escape behavior in the crayfish. J Exp Biol 56, 1-18.
  20. Yu X, Zhang X, Zhang P and Yu C. 2009. Critical swimming speed, tail-flip speed and physiological response to exercise fatigue in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicas. Comp Biochem Physiol A 153, 120-124. (DOI:10.1016.j.cbpa. 2009.01.012)
  21. Zar JH. 1996. Biostatistical analysis (3rd edition). PrenticeHall. London. 471-479.
  22. Zhang PD, Zhang XM and Li J. 2011. Physiological responses to swimming fatigue of juvenile white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different velocities, temperatures and salinities. African J Biotechnol 10, 851-853. (DOI:10.5897/AJB10.1574)