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The Immunotyping Distribution of Serum Monoclonal Paraprotein and Environmental Impact on Multiple Myeloma (MM) and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertain Significance (MGUS) in Taiwan: A Medical Center-Based Experience

  • Chang, Chih-Chun (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Su, Ming-Jang (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Lee, Shu-Jene (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Tsai, Yu-Hui (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Kuo, Lin-Yin (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Lin, I-Hsin (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Huang, Hui-Ling (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital) ;
  • Yen, Tzung-Hai (Division of Nephrology and Clinical Toxicology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin-Kou Medical Center) ;
  • Chu, Fang-Yeh (Department of Clinical Pathology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital)
  • Published : 2016.02.05

Abstract

Background: Whether ambient exposure to environmental pollutants leads to hematopoietic malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) remains to be ascertained. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein and the environmental influence on MM and monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) in the Taiwanese population. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis with immunosubtraction by the capillary zone electrophoresis method was performed as primary screening for MM and MGUS. Clinical, pathological, and residence data of patients were also obtained. Results: From August, 2013 to June, 2015, a total of 327 patients underwent serum protein electrophoresis with immunosubtraction. Among these, 281 demonstrated no remarkable findings or non-malignant oligoclonal gammopathy, 23 were detected to have MGUS, 18 were identified as MM, and a further 5 were found as other malignancies. The most frequent immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein was IgG kappa (54.3%, n=25), followed by IgA lambda (15.2%, n=7) and IgG lambda (10.9%, n=5) in subjects with gammopathy. Additionally, it was shown that the elderly (OR: 4.61, 95% CI: 1.88-11.30, P<0.01) and males (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.04-4.02, P=0.04) had significantly higher risk of developing MM and MGUS. There was no obvious impact of environmental factors on the health risk of MM and MGUS evolution (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.40-1.50, P=0.49). Conclusions: The most frequent immunotyping distribution of serum monoclonal paraprotein included IgG kappa, IgA lambda and IgG lambda in MM and MGUS in the Taiwanese population. The elderly and male subjects are at significantly higher risk of MM and MGUS development, but there was no obvious impact of environmental factors on risk.

Keywords

Multiple myeloma;monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance;protein electrophoresis

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