DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

A Study on the Factors Affecting Technological Innovation of Innovative IT SMEs

혁신형 IT 중소기업의 기술혁신에 영향을 미치는 요인에 관한 연구

  • Kim, J.K. (Dept. of MIS, Dongguk University - Seoul Campus) ;
  • Hwang, K.T. (Dept. of MIS, Dongguk University - Seoul Campus)
  • 김진국 (동국대학교 서울캠퍼스 경영대학 경영정보학과) ;
  • 황경태 (동국대학교 서울캠퍼스 경영대학 경영정보학과)
  • Received : 2016.09.30
  • Accepted : 2016.11.20
  • Published : 2016.11.28

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to identify and analyze the factors affecting technology innovation of the innovative IT SMEs. A research model is established based on the previous studies on the technology innovation of SMEs. The model consists of independent variables (Adhocracy culture, R&D capability, IT capability, Leadership, and Appraisal & Reward), an intermediate variable (Knowledge management), and dependent variables (product/service innovation and process innovation). Major research results can be summarized as follows: IT SMEs pursuing technology innovation should: (1) pay attention to innovation oriented culture, IT capability, and evaluation & compensation systems of the company; (2) recognize that knowledge management is an essential activity performed by the company; (3) strengthen the R&D capabilities of the company by not only exerting internal efforts but establishing cooperative network with various parties; and (4) resolve the decoupling problem of the evaluation & compensation system.

Keywords

Technological innovation;Innovative SMEs;IT SMEs;Organizational culture;Organization managerial capability;Technological innovation capability;Knowledge management

References

  1. Yoon-Su Jeong, "Business Process Model for Efficient SMB using Big Data",Journal of IT Convergence Society for SMB, Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 11-16, 2015.
  2. Shin-Hyeone Choi, "A Study on Smart Campus Information Services", Journal of IT Convergence Society for SMB, Vol. 6, No .3, pp. 79-83, 2016.
  3. Seong-Hoon Lee, Dong-Woo Lee, "A Case Study in Japanese and Prospect of Cloud Computing Service in Convergence Age", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 17-22, 2015.
  4. MyounJae Lee, "A Game Design for IoT environment", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 133-138, 2015. https://doi.org/10.15207/JKCS.2015.6.4.133
  5. Jae-yong Song, samsung newsroom, https://news.samsung.com/kr/category/opinion/, 2014/11/07.
  6. Korea International Trade Association, "Overcoming and Implication "the Valley of Death" on IT Venture Firms",Trade Brief, No. 31, 2015. 5. 26.
  7. Suk-Bong Choi & Gui-Ryong Ha, "A Study of Critical Factors for Technological Innovaiton of korean Manufacturing Firms," Korea Industrial Economic Association, Vol. 24, No.1, pp. 1-24, 2011.
  8. Christensen, C. M, The Innovator's Dilemma, Harvard Business Review Press; 1st edition, 1997.
  9. Downes, L. and Nunes, P. F, "BIG-BANG Disruption", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 91 No. 3, 2013.
  10. Jong-seon Kim, "A Study on the Promoting Methods for Innovative SMEs based on Technological Innovation Types," Science and Technology Policy Institute, 2007. 11, pp. 1-130, 2007.
  11. Klepper, S. and K. L. Simons, "The Marketing of An Oligopoly: Firm Survival and Technological Change in the U.S. Tire Industry," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 108, No. 4, pp. 728-760, 2000. https://doi.org/10.1086/316100
  12. Adams, R., J. Bessant and R. Phelps, "Innovation Management Measurement: A Review," International Journal of Management Reviews, Vol. 8, No.1, pp. 21-47, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2006.00119.x
  13. Becheikh, N., R. Landry and N. Arma, "Lessons From Innovation Empirical Studies in the Manufacturing Sector: A Systematic Review of The Literature from 1993-2003," Technovation, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 644-664, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2005.06.016
  14. Schumpeter, J. A, The Theory of Economic Development: an inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest and the Business Cycle, Cambridge MA., Harvard University Press, 1934.
  15. OECD-Eurostat(Oslo Manual), Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, Oslo Manual 3rd Edition, 2005.
  16. Abernathy, W.J. and Utterback, J, "A Dynamic Model of Process and Product Innovation," Omega, Vol. 3 No. 6, pp. 639-656, 1975. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0483(75)90068-7
  17. Philip Anderson and Michael L. Tushman, "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 604-633, 1990. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393511
  18. Henderson, R. M. and Clark, K. B, "Architectural Innovation: The Reconfiguration of Existing Product Technologies and the Failure of Established Firm," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 9-30, 1990. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393549
  19. Bower, J.L. and Christensen, C.M, "Disruptive Technologies: Catching The Wave," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 43-53, 1995.
  20. Zin-soo No, "systematic review of the technological Innovation research trend & recent issue : network & collaboration," Master's thesis, Hanyang University Graduate School, 2010.
  21. Min-Sik Kim, Won-Joon Chung, "Understanding 'BIG-BANG Disruption' Innovation and Developments of ICT Industry: Comparing mainly with Disruptive Innovation.," Korea Information Society Development Institute, Vol. 26, No. 1(569), pp. 1-16, 2014.
  22. Young-Bae Kim, "innovative SMEs," Science and Technology Policy Institute(STEPI), 2005-19, 2005.
  23. Byung-Heon Lee, Won-Jin Kang, Sang-Moon Park, "Comparison of Technological Innovation and Performance between Innovative SMEs and General SMEs: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications," The Journal of Small Business Innovation, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 79-100, 2008.
  24. Tae-Wook Yoo, "An Empirical Study on the Effect of Technology Innovation Activities on Technology and Management Performances in INNO-BIZ Companies," Ph.D. dissertation, Hoseo University Graduate School of Venture, 2010.
  25. Dong-ju Lee, "Linkage between Innovative SMEs and development policy," Korea Small Business Institute, 07-25, 2007.
  26. Hicks, D. & Hegde, D, "Highly innovation small firms in the markets for technology," Research Policy, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 703-716, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2005.03.008
  27. Jong-Nam Ko, "The Influence of Corporate Entrepreneurship on Radical Innovation Mediated by Management System," Ph.D. dissertation, Soongsil University Graduate School, 2010.
  28. Damanpour, F, "Organizational innovation : A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 34, pp. 555-590, 1991. https://doi.org/10.2307/256406
  29. Si-yeong Kim, "A study on the impact of CEO's leadership on management innovation and technology innovation," Ph.D. dissertation, Pusan University Graduate School, 2012.
  30. Damanpour, F. & Evans, W. M, "Organizational innovation and performance: The problem of organizational lag," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 29, pp. 392-409, 1984. https://doi.org/10.2307/2393031
  31. Subramaninam M. and M. A. Youndt, "The Influence of Intellectual Capital on the types of Innovations Capabilities," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 450-463, 2005. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2005.17407911
  32. Christensen, C. M, The Innovator's dilemma, rep. ed., Harper Business Essential, 2003.
  33. Schumpeter, J. A, The Theory of Economy Development, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1961.
  34. Barney, J. B. & Griffin, R. W, The management of Organization, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.
  35. Arundel A. and H. Hollanders, EXIS: An Exploratory Approach to Innovation Scoreboards, European Trend Chart on innovation, 2005.
  36. Lassen, A. H. and Gertsen, F., Riis, J. O, "The Nexus of Corporate Entrepreneurship and Radical Innovation," Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 359-372, 2006.
  37. Joong-Gyoo Lee, "A Study on the Effect of Innovation Determinants upon Managerial Innovation and Technological Innovation," Ph.D. dissertation, Dankook University Graduate School, 2007.
  38. Sang-Hun Ahn, "A Study on the influence of Technological Entrepreneurship on Technological Innovation and Commercialization : Focusing on the moderating effects of Emotional Intelligence," Ph.D. dissertation, Kumoh National Institute of Technology Graduate School, 2013.
  39. Sang-Joo Cho, "The effect of organization culture on the knowledge management and management innovation in small business : based on moderating effect of entrepreneurship", Ph.D. dissertation, Sangji University Graduate School, 2015.
  40. Tae-Jeong Ha, Hee-Jong Kang, Kyung-Soon Park, Won-Muk Kang, "Report on the Korean Innovation Survey 2010: Manufacturing Sector," Science and Technology Policy Institute, 2010-01, 2010.
  41. Kwang-Jae Kim, Yoo S. Hong, Dongmin Shin, Nam Wook Cho, Jae-Yoon Jung, Yeonhee Lee, Hayoung Park, Jung-Wan Hong, Wanmo Kang, Hayong Shin, "Services Innovation : Research Framework and Research Issues", Journal of the Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 226-247, 2009.
  42. Love, J. and Roper, S, "The Determinants of Innovation: R&D, Technology Transfer and Networking Effects," Review of Industrial Organization, Vol. 15, pp. 43-64, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007757110963
  43. Tae-Kyung Sung, Jin-Sok Kim, "Determinants of Firm's Innovation Performance: Evidence from Jeonbuk-based Firms in Korea ," Korea Journal of Business Administration, Vol.22, No.4, pp. 2017-2036, 2009.
  44. Yam, R. C. M., J. C. Guan, K. F. Pun and E. P. Y. Tang, "An Audit of Technological Innovation Capabilities in Chinese Firms: Some Empirical Finding in Beijng, China," Research Policy, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1123-1140, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2004.05.004
  45. Young-Joe Kim, "An Empirical Study on the Impacts of Strategic Leadership, R&D Investment, and Human Resource Management Practices on Innovation Performance ", The Korean Association Of Personnel Administration, Vol.31, No.4, 49-83, 2007.
  46. Hyeok-Gi Jang, "The influence of the elements of organizational culture on innovative behavior focused on mediating effect of shared leadership," Master's thesis, Hanyang University Graduate School, 2013.
  47. Kyung-Yun Hwang, Eul-Hyun Sung, "The Relationships between Technology Commercialization Competence, R&D Capacity, Innovation and Export Performance: In the Firms Introduced the Technology from Government-funded Research Institutes in Daedeok Innopolis," Journal of Korea Trade, Vol.40, No 1, pp. 285-309, 2015.
  48. Pavitt, K, Innovation Processes, in J. Fagerberg, D. C. Mowery and R. R. Nelson (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press: 86-114, 2005.
  49. Tushman, M. L. and C. A. O'Reilly, "Ambidextrous Organizations: Managing Evolutionary and Revolutionary Change," California Management Review, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 8-29, 1996.
  50. Hong Lee, Hyun Lee, "Realization of Dynamic Capability through Ambidexterity : A Historical Review and Critical Issues for Its Effective Build-up ", The Korean Association Of Personnel Administration, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 95-124, 2009.
  51. Kyung-Saen Chang, "The Determinants and Performance of Knowledge Management Activities in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," Ph.D. dissertation, Sangji University Graduate School, 2011.
  52. Barney, J. B, "Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage," Journal of Management, Vol. 17, pp. 99-129, 1991.
  53. Jun-Seok Seo, "A study of relationship between knowledge management capabilities of hi-tech companies and innovation performance - With focus on Daedeok Innopolis", Ph.D. dissertation, Chungnam National University Graduate School, 2012.
  54. Kwang-man Go, "The relationship between CEO's entrepreneurship/Social capital, Knowledge management and Innovation, and the moderating effect of Convergence Federation in Small & Medium Business," Ph.D. dissertation, Sangji University Graduate School, 2013.
  55. Chen, C. & Huang, J, "How organizational climate and structure affect knowledge management?The social interaction perspective," International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 104-118, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2006.11.001
  56. Nonaka, I. and H. Takeuchi, The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation Oxford University Press, USA, 1995.
  57. Shin-Hun Kang, "The Knowledge Management of Venture Business : focused on the R&D department," Master's thesis, Yonsei University Graduate School, 1999.
  58. Berchicci, L, "Towards an Open R&D System: Internal R&D Investment, External Knowledge Acquisition and Innovative Performance," Research Policy, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 117-127, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.04.017
  59. Ren, S., Eisingerich, A, B. and Tsai, H, T., "How do marketing, research and development capabilities, and degree of internationalization synergistically affect the innovation performance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)? A panel data study of Chinese SMEs", International Business Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 642-651, 2014.
  60. Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A. and A. H., Segars, "Knowledge Management: an Organizational Capabilities Perspective," Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 185-214, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669
  61. Ndlela, L. T. and du Toit, A. S. A, "Establishing a knowledge management program me for competitive advantage in an enterprise," International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 151-165, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-4012(01)00007-X
  62. Ju-Sung Hwang, Ji-Yeon You, Ji-Won Jo, "Mutual technology innovation through a knowledge-based economy and Network," Korea Information Society Development Institute, 01-22, 2001.
  63. Jae-Bin Song, "An Empirical Studyon the Mediating Role of Organizational Learning between IT Capability and New Product Development Performanc ", Master's thesis Yonsei University Graduate School, 2009.
  64. Young-Myung Jang, "Cooperative and Innovative Behavior: The Effects of Leadership, Intrinsic Motivation, and Empowerment", Ph.D. dissertation, HanNam University Graduate School, 2013.
  65. Jung, D. I., Chow, C. & A. Wu, "The Role of Transformational Leadership in Enhancing Organizational Innovation: Hypotheses and Some Preliminary Findings," The Leadership Quarterly, 14, pp. 525-544, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(03)00050-X
  66. Hyo-Seong Baek, "Linked performance, Organizational supporting, Assessment and Compensation system and Outcome of Organizational innovation activity," Master's thesis, Kyungpook National University Graduate School, 2005.
  67. McDermott, R. and C. O'Dell, "Overcoming Cultural Barriers to Sharing Knowledge," Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 5, pp. 76-85, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1108/13673270110384428
  68. Su-Il Song,, "A Study on Evaluation and Compensation for Knowledge Sharing Promotion," Master's thesis, Kwangwoon University Graduate School, 2003.
  69. Lerner, J. and Wulf, J, "Innovation and Incentives: Evidence from Corporate R&D," The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 89, No. 4, pp. 634-644, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1162/rest.89.4.634
  70. Lee, S. and Kim, Y, "The Impact of Efficiency Parameters on Firm's Innovative Activities: Evidence from Korean Firm-level Data", Technology Management, Economics and Policy Papers, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 283-297, 2010.
  71. Korea Institute of Intellectual Property, "National IP strategy suggestions," 2014.
  72. Hansen, M. T, "The search-transfer problem : The role of weak ties in sharing knowledge across organization subunits," Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.44, pp. 82-111, 1999. https://doi.org/10.2307/2667032
  73. Gloet, M., and Terziovski, M, "Exploring the relationship between knowledge management practices and innovation performance," Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 15 No. 5, pp. 402-409, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1108/17410380410540390
  74. Prajogo, D. I., Power, D. J., and Sohal, A. S, "The role of trading partner relationships in determining innovation performance: An empirical examination," European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol.7, No. 3, pp. 178-186, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1108/14601060410549874
  75. Cameron, K. S. and Quinn, R. E, Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture, New York: Addison Wesley Inc, 1999.
  76. Young-Bin Jin, "A Study of Public Sector Organizational Culture for Smart Work Activation," Ph.D. dissertation, Kyungsung University Graduate School, 2014.
  77. Hyuk-Chul Kwon, "An Empirical Study on the Korean Military Organizational Culture Gap Based on the Competing Values Framework," Ph.D. dissertation, Hansung University Graduate School, 2014.
  78. Romijn, H and Albaladejo, M, "Determinants of Innovation Capability in Small Electronics and Software firms in Southeast England," Research Policy, Vol.31, No. 7, pp. 1053-1067, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-7333(01)00176-7
  79. Czarnitzki, D. & Kraft, K, "An empirical test of the asymmetric models on innovative activity: who invests more into R&D, the incumbent or the challenger?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 153-173, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jebo.2003.01.008
  80. Jiho Jang, Wangsik Kim, Byung-Hyun Lee, "Study of Certification and Evaluation Program on Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises," Social Science Research Review, Vol.24, No.2, PP. 153-177, 2008.
  81. Dong-Woo Yang, "Empirical Study on Relationship Between ex-ante Early Stage Venture Technology Innovation Power and ex-post Firm's Performance," Knowledge Management Research, Vol.7, No.1, pp. 49-63, 2006.
  82. Hoon Kim, Nung-Jin Kim, "The Effect of Innovation Success Factors and Innovation Capabilities on Performance in Manufacturing Firm", Korean Production and Operations Management Society, Vol.20, No.3, pp. 99-125, 2009.
  83. Hyun-Chul Son, "The Relationship among Technological Innovation Factors, Innovation Capability and Business Performances :Focusing on the Moderating Effect of Government Suppot," Ph.D. dissertation, Chungbuk Nationa University Graduate School, 2013.
  84. Burbridge, J. J, "Strategic Implications of Logistics Information Systems", Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 368-383, 1988.
  85. Ives, B. and S. L. Javenpaa, "Applications of Global Information Technology: Key Issues for Management," MIS Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 33-49, 1991. https://doi.org/10.2307/249433
  86. Closs, D. J., T. J. Goldsby and S. R. Clinton, "Information Technology Influences on World Class Logistics Capability", International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 4-17, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1108/09600039710162259
  87. Cheol Jeong, "The Impact of IT leveraging competence on firm performance in inter-firm relationships :Focus on social capital and collaboration," Ph.D. dissertation, Chungbuk Nationa University Graduate School, 2008.
  88. Jeong-Hwan Kim, "A Study on the Effects of Information Technology Capabilities on Supply Chain Integration and Logistics Customer Service Cheol Jeong Korean Production and Operations Management Society," Ph.D. dissertation, Chung-Ang University Graduate School, 2013.
  89. Bass, B. M, Leadership and performance beyond expectations, New York: The Free Press, 1985.
  90. Greller, M, Robert, "The Nature of Subordinate Participation in the Interview," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 646-658, 1978. https://doi.org/10.2307/255705
  91. McFarlin, D. B. and Sweeney, P. D, "Distributive and Procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction with personal and organizational outcome," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 35, pp. 626-637, 1992. https://doi.org/10.2307/256489
  92. Won-Chang Choi, "A Study on the Influences of the Appraisal and Compensation Satisfaction on the Knowledge Sharing Activation," Master's thesis, Chonbuk National University Graduate School, 2005.
  93. Alavi, M., and Leidner, D. E, "Review : Knowledge management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues," MIS Quarterly, Vol.25, No.1, pp.107-136, 2001. https://doi.org/10.2307/3250961
  94. Eur-Jun Son, "Effects of Product and Process Innovation on the Competitive Performance of Firms Knowledge Management Research," Ph.D. dissertation, Daegu University Graduate School, 2006.
  95. Ji-Dae Kim "Impact of Redefinition of Market Boundary Core Competence, and Strategic Learning on Value-Innovative New Product Development," korean academic society of business administration, Vol.37, No.5, pp. 1287-1308, 2008.
  96. Seong-Im Choi, "The Influence of Management Strategy and CEO Type on the Management Innovation Performance," Ph.D. dissertation, Anyang University Graduate School, 2006.
  97. Ju-Hong Park, Jae-Ha Lee, "An International Comparative Analysis on the Product & Process Innovation :With an Emphasis on the Korean, Japanese and German Chemical Industry", IE interfaces, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 406-413, 1999.
  98. Ga-Won Jo, Hee-Jong Kang, Jung-Jin Kim, Chang-So Sohn, Min-jae Kim, "Report on the Korean Innovation Survey 2014 :Manufacturing and Service Sector," Science and Technology Policy Institute(STEPI), 2014-10-02, 2014.
  99. George, D. and Mallery, P, SPSS for Windows Step by Step : A Simple Guide and Reference. 11.0 update(4th ed.), Boston : Allyn and Bacon, 2003.
  100. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F, "Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error : Algebra and Statistics", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 382-388, 1981. https://doi.org/10.2307/3150980
  101. Ji-Joon Song, SPSS/AMOS Statistical analysis, 21c book, 2010.
  102. Byung-Ryul Bae, Structural equation modeling with Amos 19 : principles and practice, Crbooks, 2011.
  103. Hong, Ilyou B., Kim, Woo Sung. & Lim, Byung Ha, "The Impact of Perceived Risks Upon Consumer Trust and Purchase Intentions," Asia Pacific Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1-25, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2575.2010.00367.x
  104. Kim, Jongki, and Jeon, Jinhwan, "A Meta Analysis of Using Structural Equation Model on the Korean MIS Research", Asia Pacific Journal of Informations Systems, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 47-75, 2009.
  105. Joon-Ho Hyun, "Influential Factors on Compliance of Web Accessibility Standard and Its Implications :Focusing on the Perspective of Web Developers," Ph.D. dissertation, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Graduate School, 2015.
  106. Carmines, E.G. & McIver, J.P, Analyzing models with unobserved variables., In Bohrnstedt, G.W. & Borgatta, E.F. [Eds.] Social measurement: Current issues. Beverly Hills: Sage, 1981.
  107. Browne, M.W. & Cudeck, R, Alternative ways of assessing model fit., In Bollen, K.A. & Long, J.S. [Eds.] Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 136-162, 1993.
  108. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E, Multivariate Data Analysis. Seventh Edition., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 2010.
  109. Joreskog, K. G. & Sorbom, D, LISREL-VI user's guide (3rd ed.)., Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software, 1984.
  110. Mulaik, S.A., James, L.R., Van Alstine, J., Bennett, N., Lind, S. & Stilwell, C.D.. Evaluation of goodness-of-fit indices for structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin,. 105, pp. 430-445, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.3.430
  111. Bentler, P. M. & Bonett, D. G, "Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures," Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 88, No. 3, pp. 588-606, 1980. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
  112. James, L. R., S. A. Mulaik, and J. M. Brett, "Causal analysis: Assumptions, models, and data. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications," The Academy of Management Review, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 159-161, 1982.
  113. Plessis, M. d. and Boon, J. A, "Knowledge management in eBusiness and customer relationship management: South African case study findings," International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 73-86, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2003.10.002
  114. Nung-Jin Kim, Hoon Kim, "The Effects of innovative behavior and the Key Success Factors of Knowledge Management on Firm's Performance.," Seoul National University Institute of Management, Vol.40 No.1/2 pp. 15-37, 2006.
  115. Byung-Jo Youn, "The Study about the Effect of the Knowledge Management Critical Factors on the Job Performance of the Defense Acquisition Program Management", Ph.D. dissertation, Soongsil University Graduate School, 2012.
  116. Ahuja, G, "Collaboration networks, structural holes, and innovation: A longitudinal study," Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 425-455, 2000. https://doi.org/10.2307/2667105
  117. Chesbrough, H.W, Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, EunHaengNaMu, 2009.
  118. Meyer, R. W. and Rowan, B (1997), "Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony," American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp. 340-363, 1997.
  119. McLean, T. L. and Behnam, M, " The Dangers of Decoupling: The Relationship between Compliance Programs, Legitimacy Perceptions, and Institutionalized Misconduct," Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53, No. 6, pp. 1499-1520, 2010. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.57319198
  120. Jang-Hoon Chung, Mun-seok Cho, Yong-Suk Jang, "The Effects of Work-family Policy Adoption and Decoupling on Organizational Performance Improvement," Korea Labor Institute, Vol.11, No.2, pp.179-215, 2011.
  121. Jong-Seol Lee, "Decoupling, Innovative Behavior and Innovation Resistance: A Case of Collective Implementation of Six Sigma Methodolog," Ph.D. dissertation, Gachon University Graduate School, 2016.
  122. Ministry of Employment & Labor, "Wage System Restructuring Manual," 2014.
  123. Jae-San Ga, DBR special report, Vol.2, No.127, pp. 62-67, 2013.
  124. Seung-Gye Lee, "The Problems and Improvements in Performance-based Compensation System," Korean Academy of Human Resources Management, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 187-208, 2013.