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Factors Influencing Hospital Nurses' Turnover Intention: A Cross-sectional Survey

간호사의 이직의도 영향요인

  • 윤은자 (건국대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 권영미 (경인여자대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 전미순 (백석대학교 간호학과) ;
  • 안정화 (가톨릭대학교 간호학과)
  • Received : 2015.07.06
  • Accepted : 2015.07.30
  • Published : 2016.01.28

Abstract

Purpose: This study was to identify internal marketing, nursing professionalism, emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment that influence turnover intention among hospital nurses and to predict in turnover intention. Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 270 hospital nurses from 2 university hospitals in Seoul and Chungbuk, South Korea. The data were collected from May to June, 2013 and using analyzed with t-test, ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression by using SPSS 19.0 program. Results: The mean score for nurse turnover was $3.91{\pm}0.53$, internal marketing $2.58{\pm}0.48$, nursing professionalism $3.30{\pm}0.64$, emotional exhaustion $3.23{\pm}0.64$, and personal accomplishment $3.24{\pm}0.41$. The significant factors of turnover intention were emotional exhaustion, internal marketing, nursing professionalism, work unit, nurse position, and education. And these factors explained 25.1% of the variance in turnover intention. Conclusion: The results from this study indicated a need to develop the intervention program to prevent turnover intention. These findings establish a baseline that will lead to further research.

본 연구는 내부마케팅, 간호 전문직관, 정서적 소진과 개인적 성취감을 이용하여 병원 간호사의 이직의도에 영향을 주는 요인을 파악하고, 설명력을 확인하기 위해 수행한 횡단적 조사연구이다. 서울과 충북지역의 2개 대학병원 간호사 270명을 대상으로 자가보고식 설문지를 이용하여 2013년 5월부터 6월까지 자료를 수집하였다. 자료분석은 단계적 다중회귀분석(Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis)을 이용하였다. 분석결과, 간호사 이직의도의 평균값은 $3.91{\pm}0.53$, 내부마케팅은 $2.58{\pm}0.48$, 간호전문직관은 $3.30{\pm}0.64$, 정서적 소진은 $3.23{\pm}0.64$, 개인적 성취감은 $3.24{\pm}0.41$이었다. 간호사의 이직의도에 영향을 주는 요인은 정서적 소진(${\beta}=.28$, p<.001), 내부마케팅(${\beta}=-.22$, p<.001), 간호 전문직관(${\beta}=.19$, p=.010), 근무부서-외래(${\beta}=.22$, p=.021), 직위-책임간호사(${\beta}=-.303$, p=.007), 학력-석사이상(${\beta}=.28$, p=.031)이었다. 이들은 이직의도를 25.1% 설명하였다. 결론적으로 간호사 이직의도에 가장 큰 영향을 주는 요인은 정서적 소진이므로 정서적 소진을 감소시키는 중재는 이직의도를 감소시키는데 중요한 전략이 될 것이다. 아울러 내부마케팅과 간호전문직관을 증가시키기 위한 활동 또한 이직의도를 감소시킬 것이다. 본 연구결과는 구체적인 이직의도 감소프로그램의 개발을 위한 기초자료로 활용될 수 있으므로 맞춤형 프로그램을 개발하여 적용하고 추후 그 효과를 분석할 것을 제언한다.

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