The amelioration of plasma lipids by Korean traditional confectionery in middle-aged women: A cross-over study with western cookie

  • Hong, Sun Hee ;
  • Kim, Mijeong ;
  • Woo, Minji ;
  • Noh, Jeong Sook ;
  • Lee, JaeHwan ;
  • Chung, Lana ;
  • Song, Yeong Ok
  • Received : 2016.06.29
  • Accepted : 2016.08.10
  • Published : 2016.12.01


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma lipid profiles are affected differently by snack kinds with equal calorific values. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We compared a Korean traditional confectionery (dasik) with Western confectionery (cookie) in this regard. Controlled cross-over study consisted of two 3-week snack intake phases and for separating, a 2-week washout period (3-2-3) was carried out with 30 healthy women aged between 40-59 years old. Brown rice based Korean traditional confectionery and wheat flour based Western confectionery were used. The participants consumed either dasik or cookie every day for 3 weeks, providing 93 kcal a day. RESULTS: The total cholesterol (TC) in the dasik group had decreased significantly after 3 weeks (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the dasik group, reduction in TC and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were greater than those in the cookie group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prioritizing functional snacks like dasik improves plasma lipid profiles; this may be useful information for individuals who cannot refrain from snacking.


Snack;Cholesterol;plasma;cross-over trials


  1. Piernas C, Popkin BM. Snacking increased among U.S. adults between 1977 and 2006. J Nutr 2010;140:325-32.
  2. Piernas C, Popkin BM. Trends in snacking among U.S. children. Health Aff (Millwood) 2010;29:398-404.
  3. Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 2010;110:1477-84.
  4. Bouchard-Mercier A, Paradis AM, Godin G, Lamarche B, Perusse L, Vohl MC. Associations between dietary patterns and LDL peak particle diameter: a cross-sectional study. J Am Coll Nutr 2010;29: 630-7.
  5. Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, Lustig RH, Sacks F, Steffen LM, Wylie-Rosett J; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2009;120:1011-20.
  6. Lee GC, Chung HM. A literature review on the origin and the culinary characteristics of Dasik. Korean J Diet Cult 1999;14:395-403.
  7. Mellen PB, Walsh TF, Herrington DM. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:283-90.
  8. Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rexrode KM, Hu FB, Rimm EB, Willett WC. Whole grain consumption and risk of ischemic stroke in women: a prospective study. JAMA 2000;284:1534-40.
  9. Fung TT, Hu FB, Pereira MA, Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Willett WC. Whole-grain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:535-40.
  10. Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Whole grain consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort of 60,000 women. Br J Cancer 2005;92:1803-7.
  11. Fardet A. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutr Res Rev 2010;23:65-134.
  12. Lang R, Jebb SA. Who consumes whole grains, and how much? Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:123-7.
  13. Keast DR, Rosen RA, Arndt EA, Marquart LF. Dietary modeling shows that substitution of whole-grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains. J Am Diet Assoc 2011;111:1322-8.
  14. Vuksan V, Sievenpipper J, Jovanovski E, Jenkins AL. Current clinical evidence for Korean red ginseng in management of diabetes and vascular disease: a Toronto's Ginseng Clinical Testing Program. J Ginseng Res 2010;34:264-73.
  15. Kim SH, Park KS. Effects of Panax ginseng extract on lipid metabolism in humans. Pharmacol Res 2003;48:511-3.
  16. Sung H, Jung YS, Cho YK. Beneficial effects of a combination of Korean red ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2009;16:1127-31.
  17. Lee HJ, Lee YH, Park SK, Kang ES, Kim HJ, Lee YC, Choi CS, Park SE, Ahn CW, Cha BS, Lee KW, Kim KS, Lim SK, Lee HC. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves insulin sensitivity and attenuates the development of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. Metabolism 2009;58:1170-7.
  18. Choi KT. Botanical characteristics, pharmacological effects and medicinal components of Korean Panax ginseng C A Meyer. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2008;29:1109-18.
  19. Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behav Res Methods 2007;39:175-91.
  20. Keskin M, Kurtoglu S, Kendirci M, Atabek ME, Yazici C. Homeostasis model assessment is more reliable than the fasting glucose/insulin ratio and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index for assessing insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2005;115:e500-3.
  21. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjostrom M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, Pratt M, Ekelund U, Yngve A, Sallis JF, Oja P. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:1381-95.
  22. Oh JY, Yang YJ, Kim BS, Kang JH. Validity and reliability of Korean version of International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. J Korean Acad Fam Med 2007;28:532-41.
  23. Boobier WJ, Baker JS, Hullen D, Graham MR, Davies B. Functional biscuits and coronary heart disease risk factors. Br Food J 2007;109: 260-7.
  24. Bogl LH, Pietilainen KH, Rissanen A, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, Rose RJ, Ala-Korpela M, Kaprio J. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2013;23:1071-8.
  25. Krauss RM. Lipoprotein subfractions and cardiovascular disease risk. Curr Opin Lipidol 2010;21:305-11.
  26. Grundy SM. Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:2595-600.
  27. Drewnowski A. The real contribution of added sugars and fats to obesity. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:160-71.
  28. Elmslie JL, Sellman JD, Schroder RN, Carter FA. The NEEDNT Food List: non-essential, energy-dense, nutritionally-deficient foods. N Z Med J 2012;125:84-92.
  29. Mishra N, Chandra R. Development of functional biscuit from soy flour & rice bran. Int J Agric Food Sci 2012;2:14-20.
  30. Karklina D, Gedrovica I, Reca M, Kronberga M. Production of biscuits with higher nutritional value. Proc Latv Acad Sci B Nat Exact Appl Sci 2012;66:113-6.
  31. Jayswal V. Effect of feeding functional snack "Khakhra" on blood glucose and antioxidant status of type II diabetic males residing in Anand. J Adv Res Appl Sci 2016;3:284-94.
  32. Kim MK, Won EJ. Effects of feeding polished or brown rice diet with different kinds of lipids on the lipid metabolism in rats. Korean J Nutr 1984;17:154-62.
  33. Panlasigui LN, Thompson LU. Blood glucose lowering effects of brown rice in normal and diabetic subjects. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2006;57:151-8.
  34. Liu R, Zhang J, Liu W, Kimura Y, Zheng Y. Anti-Obesity effects of protopanaxdiol types of ginsenosides isolated from the leaves of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) in mice fed with a high-fat diet. Fitoterapia 2010;81:1079-87.
  35. Lee S, Lee MS, Kim CT, Kim IH, Kim Y. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduces lipid accumulation with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in HepG2 cells. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:5729-39.
  36. Inoue M, Wu CZ, Dou DQ, Chen YJ, Ogihara Y. Lipoprotein lipase activation by red ginseng saponins in hyperlipidemia model animals. Phytomedicine 1999;6:257-65.
  37. Koya-Miyata S, Arai N, Mizote A, Taniguchi Y, Ushio S, Iwaki K, Fukuda S. Propolis prevents diet-induced hyperlipidemia and mitigates weight gain in diet-induced obesity in mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2009;32:2022-8.
  38. Fiordaliso M, Kok N, Desager JP, Goethals F, Deboyser D, Roberfroid M, Delzenne N. Dietary oligofructose lowers triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in serum and very low density lipoproteins of rats. Lipids 1995;30:163-7.
  39. Tokunaga T, Oku T, Hosoya N. Influence of chronic intake of new sweetener fructooligosaccharide (Neosugar) on growth and gastrointestinal function of the rat. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1986;32: 111-21.

Cited by

  1. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice vol.11, pp.5, 2017,
  2. Mice vol.21, pp.6, 2018,


Supported by : iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries)