The Effects of Parent-Adolescent Communication and Adolescent Optimism on Conflict-Coping Styles

부모-자녀간 의사소통과 남녀 청소년의 낙관성이 갈등대처방식에 미치는 영향

  • Suh, Haein (Department of Child Development, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Shin, Nana (Department of Child Development, Ewha Womans University)
  • 서해인 (이화여자대학교 아동학과) ;
  • 신나나 (이화여자대학교 아동학과)
  • Received : 2016.08.31
  • Accepted : 2016.10.16
  • Published : 2016.10.31


Objective: The main purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of parent-adolescent communication (through adolescent optimism) on adolescent conflict-coping styles. Methods: A total of 337 high school students participated in this study. They completed questionnaires about communications with their parents and their own optimism and conflict-coping styles. Data were analyzed using t-tests, correlations, and SEM. Results: Neither father- nor mother-adolescent communication had direct effects on adolescent conflict-coping styles. However, mother-adolescent communication had an indirect effect on conflict-coping styles, mediated by adolescent optimism. Adolescents who had open communication with mothers displayed higher levels of optimism, which led to more positive conflict-coping styles. In addition, multigroup analyses revealed that there were significant gender differences in direct and indirect effects. For boys, mother-adolescent communication directly influenced adolescent conflict-coping styles; however, father-adolescent communication did not directly or indirectly affect adolescent conflict-coping styles. For girls, neither father- nor mother-adolescent communication had direct effects on conflict-coping styles; only optimism had a significant effect on conflict-coping styles. Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that communication with mothers and fathers have different effects on adolescents' conflict-coping styles. These findings have implications for future research and practice by emphasizing the importance of parent-adolescent communication and optimism in designing conflict-coping programs for adolescents.


Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea


  1. Alexander, K. L. (2000). Prosocial behaviors of adolescents in work and family life: Empathy and conflict resolution strategies with parents and peers (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
  2. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 111-135). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
  3. Buyse, E., Verschueren, K., Verachtert, P., & van Damme, J. (2009). Predicting school adjustment in early elementary school: Impact of teacher-child relationship quality and relational classroom climate. The Elementary School Journal, 110(2), 119-141. doi:10.1086/605768
  4. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1994). Situational coping and coping dispositions in a stressful transaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 184-195. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.1.184
  5. Cho, Y. (2014). Acculturation, psychological and school adjustment of early study-abroad adolescents in terms of stress coping strategy. Child Studies in Asia-Pacific Contexts, 4(1), 13-25. doi:10.5723/csac.2014.4.1.013
  6. Chung, T.-Y., & Asher, S. R. (1996). Children's goals and strategies in peer conflict situations. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 42(1), 125-147. Retrieved from
  7. Collins, W. A., Laursen, B., Mortensen, N., Luebker, C., & Ferreira, M. (1997). Conflict processes and transitions in parent and peer relationships: Implications for autonomy and regulation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(2), 178-198. doi:10.1177/0743554897122003
  8. Downs, A. C. (1990). The social biological constructs of social competency. In T. P. Gullotta, G. R. Adams, & R. Montemayor (Eds.), Developing social competency in adolescence (pp. 43-94). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  9. Dusek, J. B., & Danko, M. (1994). Adolescent coping styles and perceptions of parental child rearing. Journal of Adolescent Research, 9(4), 412-426. doi:10.1177/074355489494002
  10. Furman, W., & Buhrmester, D. (1992). Age and sex differences in perceptions of networks of personal relationships. Child Development, 63(1), 103-115. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1992.tb03599.x
  11. Garcia-Ruiz, M., Rodrigo, M. J., Hernandez-Cabrera, J. A., & Maiquez, M. L. (2013). Contribution of parents' adult attachment and separation attitudes to parent-adolescent conflict resolution. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(6), 459-467. doi:10.1111/sjop.12077
  12. Hartup, W. W., & Laursen, B. (1993). Conflict and context in peer relations. In C. H. Hart (Ed.), Children on playgrounds: Research perspectives and applications (pp. 44-48). New York: SUNY Press.
  13. Hong, J. (2006). Conflict management in an age of globalization: A comparison of intracultural and intercultural conflict management strategies between Koreans and U.S. Americans. Speech & Communication, 6, 168-201. Retrieved from
  14. Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.
  15. Laursen, B., & Collins, W. A. (1994). Interpersonal conflict during adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115(2), 197-209. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.115.2.197
  16. Padilla-Walker, L. M., & Christensen, K. J. (2011). Empathy and self-regulation as mediators between parenting and adolescents' prosocial behavior toward strangers, friends, and family. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(3), 545-551. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00695.x
  17. Rahim, A., & Bonoma, T. V. (1979). Managing organizational conflict: A model for diagnosis and intervention. Psychological Reports, 44(3), 1323-1344. doi:10.2466/pr0.1979.44.3c.1323
  18. Rose, A. J., & Asher, S. R. (1999). Children's goals and strategies in response to conflicts within a friendship. Developmental Psychology, 35(1), 69-79. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.35.1.69
  19. Scales, P. C., & Leffert, N. (1999). Developmental assets: A synthesis of the scientific research on adolescent development. Minneapolis, MN: Search Institute.
  20. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219-247. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.4.3.219
  21. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16(2), 201-228. doi:10.1007/BF01173489
  22. Scheier, M. F., Weintraub, J. K., & Carver, C. S. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1257-1264. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1257
  23. Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Free Press.
  24. Shanahan, L., McHale, S. M., Crouter, A. C., & Osgood, D. W. (2007). Warmth with mothers and fathers from middle childhood to late adolescence: Within- and betweenfamilies comparisons. Developmental Psychology, 43(3), 551-563. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.551
  25. Shi, L. (2003). The association between adult attachment styles and conflict resolution in romantic relationships. American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(3), 143-157. doi:10.1080/01926180301120
  26. Strack, S., Carver, C. S., & Blaney, P. H. (1987). Predicting successful completion of an aftercare program following treatment for alcoholism: The role of dispositional optimism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53(3), 579-584. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.53.3.579
  27. Unger, J. B., Kipke, M. D., Simon, T. R., Johnson, C. J., Montgomery, S. B., & Iverson, E. (1998). Stress, coping, and social support among homeless youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 13(2), 134-157. doi:10.1177/0743554898132003
  28. Ahn, N.-Y., & Yoo, Y.-D. (2013). The relationships between perceived parents-adolescents communication and adolescents' depression/happiness. Korean Journal of Counseling, 14(5), 3201-3215. Retrieved from
  29. Ahn, Y. M. (2012). Relationships among children's happiness, parentschild communication types recognized by children and optimism (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  30. Bae, S. Y., & Rhee, U. (2001). The relationship between children's friendship quality and conflict resolution strategies. Yonsei Journal of Human Ecology, 15, 80-88. Retrieved from
  31. Cha, J. H., & Chun, Y.-J. (2002). Relationship between the health of the family of origin and intimacy among the dating couples. Journal of Korean Family Relations Association, 7(1), 39-57. Retrieved from
  32. Chae, K. S., & Hwang, H. J. (2014). The relationship among parent-child communication types and children's perceived happiness. Journal of Korean Hyo Studies, 20, 159-190. Retrieved from
  33. Chang, A. (2014). Influences of psychological environment from parents, teachers, and peers on adolescents' psychological wellbeing and school adjustment (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  34. Chang, Y. S., & Park, Y. S. (2008). The relationship among children's perceived parent-child communication, egoresilience and conflict resolution strategies in children's friendship. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 16(3), 271-280. Retrieved from
  35. Choi, C.-W., & Kim, J.-H. (2004). A analysis of factors affecting the Youth Conflict Resolution Styles (YCRS) with friends. Studies on Korean Youth, 15(2), 509-539. Retrieved from
  36. Do, K.-H. (2008). Relation among father's child-rearing involvement, father-child communication style, children's achievement motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association, 20(4), 139-155. Retrieved from
  37. Ha, Y. M., & Kim, H. (2011). The Influence of parents' optimism on child's optimism: A mediating effect of parental positive reinforcement and parent-child communication style. Journal of Learner-Centered Curriculum and Instruction, 11(2), 283-307. Retrieved from
  38. Han, C. H., & Cho, Y. A. (2014). Moderating effects of optimism in the relationship between self-regulation ability and academic stress among adolescents. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 21(12), 205-231. Retrieved from
  39. Heo, N. Y. (2010). The relation of parent-adolescent communication scale perceived by the adolescent and their interpersonal orientation. Journal of Evaluation on Counseling, 3(2), 59-74. Retrieved from
  40. Hong, S. (2000). The criteria for selecting appropriate fit indices in structural equation modeling and their rationales. Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19(1), 161-177. Retrieved from
  41. Jang, H.-S., & Kang, T.-W. (2005). The effects of parent-adolescent communication on their self-esteem and self-efficacy. Korean Journal of Communication Studies, 13(2), 104-130. Retrieved from
  42. Ji, H.-S. (2007). A study of relationship on father-child communication and intimacy. Busan Journal of Educational Research, 20(1), 153-170. Retrieved from
  43. Jung, S. Y. (2001). Relationships between parenting behavior and conflict resolution strategies in children's friendship (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  44. Kang, M. R. (2010). Relationship among communication with parents, expressing emotion, and coping strategies with problems, or connection with peers, perceived by junior highschool students (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  45. Kang, R. H. (2011). Dysfunctional family communication and interpersonal competence: Mediating effects of self-esteem. The Journal of Chongshin University, 31, 293-316. Retrieved from
  46. Kim, H. S. (2012). The mediating effect of optimism on the relation between children's perceived parental rearing attitude and interpersonal problem-solving styles (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  47. Kim, J. H. (2002). The relations between attachment to parents, adolescent's empathy, and their conflict-resolution strategies to friends (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  48. Kim, J.-S. (2008). The effect of optimism and pessimism on psychological adjustment and maladjustment in adolescents: Coping and social support as a mediating variable. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 15(1), 271-299. Retrieved from
  49. Kim, K.-S., & Nam, H.-W. (2010). A longitudinal variation of predicting factors on delinquency trajectories: The relationship among the bonding, modeling and timing. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 17(2), 279-308. Retrieved from
  50. Kim, O. S. (2012). A study on hopeful thinking determinants of adolescents (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
  51. Kim, Y. M. (2009). A comparative study of parental attitudes and attachment on quality of interpersonal relations by gender (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  52. Kim, Y.-M., & Sim, H.-O. (2000). Influences of communication with parents, relations with teachers and intramural/extramural activities on peer relationships. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 21(4), 159-175. Retrieved from
  53. Koh, Y.-J., Rhee, U., & Mendelson, M. J. (2001). Structural equation modeling for the prediction of friendship satisfaction in early-, mid-, and late- adolescence. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 14(3), 25-42. Retrieved from
  54. Lee, E.-H. (2008). The relationships of self-differentiation with personal relations and behavior problems in adolescence: The mediating effect of conflict resolution strategy (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  55. Lee, E.-J. (2004). Adolescents' communication, conflict with parents and their self-concept (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  56. Lee, H., & Sunwoo, H.-J. (2011). Relationship between parent communication style and stress coping styles in adolescence: The mediating effects of ego-resiliency. Family and Environment Research, 49(6), 109-122. Retrieved from
  57. Lee, J. Y. (2010). MBTI personality type, self-efficacy, and ways of coping in nursing students. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 18(3), 219-227. Retrieved from
  58. Lee, J.-Y., & Lim, S.-M. (2006). Relationship between adult attachment and depression of the college students: The mediating effect of optimism and pessimism. Korea Journal of Counseling, 7(4), 969-984. Retrieved from
  59. Lee, M. Y., & Shim, J. C. (2010). Adolescent conflict management through utilization of interpersonal media. Korean Journal of Journalism & Communication Studies, 54(3), 276-300. Retrieved from
  60. Lee, N.-G. (2014). The relationship between the parent's nurturing attitudes and career maturity perceived by middle school students (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  61. Lee, S., Kim, H.-J., & Lee, Y. (2006). Resource exchanges between mothers and adolescent children. Korea Journal of Population Studies, 29(1), 97-131. Retrieved from
  62. Lee, S. H., & Kim, H. H. (2012). The relationship between parents' and adolescents' optimism: The mediating effects of parents' achievement parenting behavior. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 33(4), 51-68. Retrieved from
  63. Lee, Y. H., Chee, Y. K., & Doh, H.-S. (2012). The effects of maternal ambivalence over emotional expressiveness and mother-adolescent communication on depression in adolescent boys and girls. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 33(6), 149-168. Retrieved from
  64. Lim, J. H., & Choi, Y. S. (2006). Children coping with stress: Effects of inter-parental conflicts, parental-related stress, and communication between parent-child. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 27(4), 233-246. Retrieved from
  65. Lim, J.-H., & Chun, J. S. (2012). Effect of parenting behaviors and parent-child communication on school adjustment among male and female adolescents. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 19(8), 169-190. Retrieved from
  66. Min, H. Y. (1992). The relation between juvenile delinquency and parent-adolescent communication, family cohesion and adaptability. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 13(1), 112-124. Retrieved from
  67. Min, Y.-J. (2008). Sociality and strategies of settling conflicts according to parent-child communication patterns (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  68. Nam, J. H. (2001). Type of communication relationship between the fathers and the self-esteem of adolescence (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  69. Nam, M.-S. (2006). Elementary school children's perception of the relationship between father, mother-child communication and school adaptation (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  70. Noh, H. S. (2006). The effects of optimism and stress perception on conflict resolution mode and couple relationship satisfaction in unmarried adults (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  71. Oh, Y. S. (2013). The effects of optimistic improvement program on children's stress perception and stress coping (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  72. Park, E. M. (2011). The relationship among peer conflict resolution strategies, parent-children communication patterns, and friendship quality (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  73. Park, H.-S., & Hwang, H.-W. (2006). Family conflict and the psychological and social adjustment of early adolescents: The investigation of protective factors. Korean Journal of Family Welfare, 18, 179-201. Retrieved from
  74. Park, Y. S. (2009). The influences of school-related stress, conflicts with parents, and conflicts with friends on suicidal ideation of Korean adolescents: Centered on gender difference. The Korean Journal of Stress Research, 17(4), 389-398. Retrieved from
  75. Seo, Y., & Shin, H. (2010). Effects of the optimism enhancement program on middle school girls' dispositional optimism, depression, and psychological well-being. The Korean Journal of School Psychology, 7(3), 295-313. Retrieved from
  76. Shin, B.-H. (2008). The effects of Satir's communication training program on the coping style of interpersonal conflict of middle school girl's students. Journal of Evaluation on Counseling, 1(1), 19-35. Retrieved from
  77. Shin, H. (2005). Testing the mediating effect of coping in the relation of optimism and pessimism to psychological adjustment in adolescents. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 12(3), 165-192. Retrieved from
  78. Shin, S. (2013). Longitudinal effects of parental overprotection in academic achievement in male high school students (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  79. Shin, Y. H. (2010). The effects of children's locus of control and parental child-rearing practices on children's stress coping behaviors (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  80. Shin, Y. M. (2010). The effects of optimistic training on stress coping ability for elementary school students of single-parent, grandfather and grandson families (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  81. Shin, Y. S. (2012). Parent-adolescent communication and adolescents' goal orientation as related to academic selfefficacy (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  82. So, M. G. (2008). The study on parenting from the perspective of juvenile, their self esteem and misbehavior (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  83. Song, J. J. (2015). SPSS/AMOS statistics analysis method when writing thesis. Paju: 21 century.
  84. Suh, K.-Y. (2008). The relationships between empathy level, aggressive behaviors, and prosocial behaviors in adolescence: The mediating effect of conflict resolution styles (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  85. Sung, J. (2015). The effects of undergraduate couples' family communication and conflict resolving strategies on romantic relationship satisfaction: Actor and partner effect (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  86. Yang, H. A., & Park, Y. Y. (2004). The relationships among children's perceived parent-child communication style, stress coping behaviors and behavior problems. Korean Journal of Human Ecology, 13(6), 847-860. Retrieved from
  87. Yoo, H. Y. (2014). A study on the influence of the parent-children communication on children's big five personality factors (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  88. Yoo, K. M. (2013). A research on DAPR's effect on college students' resilience, stress, coping resources, and ability. Journal of Arts Psychotherapy, 9(4), 97-120. Retrieved from
  89. Yoon, C. S. (2002). The effect of optimism training on depression of fourth grade elementary school students (Master's thesis). Retrieved from
  90. Yoon, M.-A., & Oh, Y.-J. (2005). Study on parent-adolescent child communication types and self-efficacy. The Korean Journal Child Education, 14(1), 115-129. Retrieved from