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Amorphous Vanadium Titanates as a Negative Electrode for Lithium-ion Batteries

  • Lee, Jeong Beom (Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University) ;
  • Chae, Oh. B. (Battery R&D, LG Chem. Research Park, LG Chem. Ltd.) ;
  • Chae, Seulki (Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University) ;
  • Ryu, Ji Heon (Graduate School of Knowledge-based Technology and Energy, Korea Polytechnic University) ;
  • Oh, Seung M. (Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Institute of Chemical Processes, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2016.11.24
  • Accepted : 2016.12.12
  • Published : 2016.12.31

Abstract

Amorphous vanadium titanates (aVTOs) are examined for use as a negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries. These amorphous mixed oxides are synthesized in nanosized particles (<100 nm) and flocculated to form secondary particles. The $V^{5+}$ ions in aVTO are found to occupy tetrahedral sites, whereas the $Ti^{4+}$ ions show fivefold coordination. Both are uniformly dispersed at the atomic scale in the amorphous oxide matrix, which has abundant structural defects. The first reversible capacity of an aVTO electrode ($295mAhg^{-1}$) is larger than that observed for a physically mixed electrode (1:2 $aV_2O_5$ | $aTiO_2$, $245mAhg^{-1}$). The discrepancy seems to be due to the unique four-coordinated $V^{5+}$ ions in aVTO, which either are more electron-accepting or generate more structural defects that serve as $Li^+$ storage sites. Coin-type Li/aVTO cells show a large irreversible capacity in the first cycle. When they are prepared under nitrogen (aVTO-N), the population of surface hydroxyl groups is greatly reduced. These groups irreversibly produce highly resistive inorganic compounds (LiOH and $Li_2O$), leading to increased irreversible capacity and electrode resistance. As a result, the material prepared under nitrogen shows higher Coulombic efficiency and rate capability.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Research Foundation of Korea

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