Using of Non-verbal Communication of a Golf Instructor Affects on Faith of Instructor and Concentration in Sports

골프지도자의 비언어적 커뮤니케이션 활용이 지도자 신뢰 및 운동 몰입에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2016.08.10
  • Accepted : 2016.10.20
  • Published : 2016.10.28


This study is to find out using of non-verbal communication of a golf instructor affects faith of Instructor and concentration in sports. Object of study was participants who had been taking a golf lesson and had an experience of a golf lesson at indoor and outdoor driving ranges located in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province for their own leisure sports. Among them, questionnaires from 293 persons were used for data processing and analysis of frequency, reliability test, confirmatory factor analysis and regression analysis were conducted for data processing. The conclusion from those processes are as below. First, non-verbal communication of a golf instructor has a positive effect on faith of instructor. Second, non-verbal communication of a golf instructor has a positive effect on concentration in sports. Third, faith of instructor has a positive effect on concentration in sports.


Golf instructor;Non-verbal Communication;Faith of Instructor;Concentration in Sports;Golf Participants


  1. Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, 2013.
  2. Yoon seon-o, kim woo ho, "Convergent research on how golf affects the subjective happiness of mothers who have children with disabilities", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 47-54, 2015.
  3. C. M. Kim, K. S. Ham, "The Effect of Service Quality of Golf Practice Range on Consumers' Repurchase Behavior", Korean Jounal of Golf Studies, Vol 1, No 2, pp. 17-24. 2007.
  4. Y. D. Choi, H. J. JI, J. Y. Choi, "The Effects of Coach Images of Golf Driving Range on Leisure Satisfaction and Continuous Participation Intention of Customer", Korean Jounal of Golf Studies , Vol 7, No 2, pp. 44-55. 2013.
  5. J. I. Choi, "The Structural Relationship among Types of Coaching Behavior, Instructing Effectiveness, Participation Satisfaction by Golf Instructor", Korean Jounal of Golf Studies, Vol 7, No 1, pp. 11-2, 2013.
  6. K. J. Lee, "The Relationship among Trust of Instructors, Teaching Effectiveness and Professionalization of Golf Instructors", Journal of coaching development, Vol 8, No 1, pp. 199-208, 2006.
  7. Kyung Reul Kim,Sung Kue Kim,Myoung Kug Park, "The Relation between Golf Coach's Characteristic and Trust, Satisfaction, and Royalty of Middle and High School Golf", Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, Vol 18, No 1, pp. 123-136, 2013.
  8. Guo, K. and Sanchez, Y. "Workplace Communication. In N. Borkowski (Ed). Organizational Behavior", Theory and Design(71-101). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2009.
  9. Kim, Sang-Kook, Lee, Han-Sung, "Effect of Nonverbal Communication of Golf Instructors on the Evaluation of Instructors and Intension to Continuance of Exercise", Journal of Sport and Leisure Studies, Vol 59, No 1, pp. 401-410, 2015.
  10. Na Young, Choo, Song Hyun, Cho, "A Causal Relationship between Nonverbal Communication of Dance Instructor, Customer Participation, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty", The Korean Journal of Physical Education, Vol 24, No 1, pp. 105-115, 2013.
  11. Birdwhistell, R. L. "Kinesics and context, philadelphia: University of pennsylvania" 25, 158.
  12. Oh Mi Young, Jung In Sock, Intrapersonal Communication, 2006.
  13. Ji Young Kim, Hyung Chul Joo, In Ae Yoon. "The Structure Model Among Nonverbal Communication, Instructors Trust and Dance Flow of the Dance Educator", The Korean Society of Dance), Vol 71, No 3, pp. 1-24, 2013.
  14. Wha Yeon Kim, Hyung Ryong Lee, "The Effects of Verbal & Non Verbal Communication of Service Providers on Brand Image: Focused on Chain Restaurant", ournal of Hotel Administration, Vol 20, No 2, pp. 69-88, 2011.
  15. Young Lae Choi, Sang Back Nam, "The effect of golf teaching professional's non-verbal communication on trust and participation satisfaction", The Korea Journal of Sports Science, Vol 21, No 4, pp. 553-564, 2012.
  16. Riggio, R. E., Riggio, H. R., Salinas, C., & Cole, E. J. "The Role of Social and Emotional Communication Skills in Leader Emergence and Effectiveness". Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, Vol 7, No 2, pp. 83-103, 2003.
  17. Tae Ho Choi, Ji Tae Kim, Jeong Moon Park, "The Relationship among High School Taekwondo Coaches' Leadership Style, Leader Trust, and Coaching Effectiveness", The Journal of Korean Alliance of Martial Arts , Vol 12, No 2, pp. 123-135, 2010.
  18. Choe Woong Jea, Chang Duk Sun, Chug Ji Hhye, "The Relationship Between the Types of coach's Leader Behavior and Trust", The Korea Journal of Sports Science, Vol 15, No 2, pp. 113-123, 2006.
  19. Jun Kim, Keun Mo Lee, "The Effeft of Marine Sports Participant's Participation Motivation on Cognitive, Behavioral Commitment, and Continuous Participating Intention", The Physical Education and Sports, Vol 33, No 2, pp. 1219-1230, 2008.
  20. Heung Chan Park, Nae Sook Pyo, Sang Hoon Jeong, "Effect of Swimming Participant's Achievement Goal Orientation on Intrinsic Motivation and Physical Self-Efficacy", The Physical Education and Sports. Vol 38, No 2, pp. 1193-1204, 2009.
  21. Gun Hee Jang, Tae Soo Cho, "Research on the Relationships between Internal & External Motives of the Participant in Sports for All and Sports Commitment & Satisfaction with Sports", The Korean Journal of Physical Education, 42, pp. 1151-1162, 2010.
  22. Scanlan, T. K, Simons, J. P., Carpenter, P. J., Schmidt, G. W., & Keeler, B. "The Sport Commitment Model: Measurement Development for the Youth-Sport Domain". Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, Vol 15, No 1, pp. 16-38, 1993.
  23. Dong-Won Kim, "Wheelchair tennis has ever fusion of classroom participation of the physically disabled basic psychological needs and exercise emotional and exercise commitment", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 15-23, 2015.
  24. Omodel, M. M., & Wearing, A. J. "Need satisfaction and involvement in personal project: Toward an integrative model of subjective wellbeing", Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 59, No 4, pp. 762-769, 1990.
  25. Kye Yun Lee, Jong Su Baek, "Effects of Transformational and Transactional Leadership on the Achievement Motivation, Motor Flow, and Instructing Effectiveness Perceptional of Korea and China Player's", Korean Society of Sport Psychology, Vol 19, No 1, pp. 1-18, 2008.
  26. Dishman, R. K., & Buckworth, J. "Increasing physical activity: A Quantitative synthesis", Medicine and Science Sport and Exercise, Vol 28, No 6, pp. 706-719, 1996.
  27. Sundaram, D. S. & Webster, C. (2000). The role of nonverbal communication in service encounters. The Journal of Service Marketing. Vol 14, No 5. pp. 378-391.
  28. Min Joo Kim, Jin Kyung Park, "The Influence of Tour Conductor's Nonverbal Communication on Customer's Perceptions of Personal Service Quality and the Customer Satisfaction", Journal of Tourism Management, 28, pp. 1-21, 2006.
  29. Sirdeshmukh, D., Singh, J., & Sabol, B. "Consumer trust, value, and loyalty in relational exchanges", Journal of Marketing, Vol 66, No 1, pp. 15-37. 2002.
  30. Yun Jae Song, "Perceived Value, Firm features, Market features, Customer features, and Service Loyalty", Department of Business Administration, Keimyung University, 2004.
  31. Kim Won Kee, "Effect of the Relational Characteristic of a Leader of Sports & Welfare Facility on Reliability in a Leader and a Leader's Quality & Loyalty in related with Welfare Facility", Graduate School of Physical Education Kyunghee University, 2009.
  32. Yong gak Jung, "Validity Verification of Sport Commitment Behavior Scale", Korean Society of Sport Psychology, Vol 15, No 1, pp. 1-21, 2004.
  33. Anderson, E., & Narus, J, "A model of distributor firm and manufacturing firm working partnership", Journal of Marketing, Vol 54, No 1, pp. 42-58, 1990.
  34. Gounaris, S. P., & Karin, V. "Trust in industrial service relationship: behavioral consequences, antecedents and The moderating effect of the duration of the relationship", Journal of Services Marketing, Vol 16, No 1, pp. 636-655, 2000.
  35. Jeong Uk Kim, Jong Moo Pak, Hui Uk Yi, "Effects of Nonverbal Communication of Service Providers on Customers' Perception of the Service Quality", Journal of Marketing Management Research, Vol 11, No 2, pp. 153-172, 2006.
  36. Kyung Tak Lee, "The Effects of Nonverbal Communication of Profssor on Students' Academic Achievement", Korean Strategic Marketing Association, Vol 18, No 4, pp. 125-140, 2010.
  37. Ho Youl Lee, Jae Woo Park, "The Relationship Between Sports Program Instructor's Nonverbal Communication of Training Program for Public Officials, Participants' Sports Immersion and Their Continuos Participation Behavior", The Korean Journal of Physical Education, Vol 51, No 4, pp. 223-235, 2012.
  38. Robinson, S. L. "Trust and breach of the psychological contract", Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, pp. 574-559, 1996.
  39. Young In Kim, "The Effects of Taekwondo Masters' Servant Leadership on Trust in Leader and Exercise Flow", Journal of Korean Physical Education Association for Girls and Women), Vol 22, No 5, pp. 63-72, 2008.
  40. Geum Ran Park, Kang Tae Lee, "Effect that Teacher's Justice which Sport Player Students are Late Gets in Trust and Commitment", Korean Society of Sport Psychology, Vol 18, No 1, pp. 31-41. 2007.
  41. Sung Yong, Cho, "The Effects of Leadership at the Edge on Organizational Effectiveness", Department of Business Administration, Kyung Hee University, 2005.
  42. Gu Kyo Sun, "Influence of Dance Leaders by Leadership Type on Trust and Commitment to Dancing", Major in Physical Education, Dongguk University, 2012.
  43. Choi Eun-Yong, "Determinants of Job Satisfaction for Professional Dance Company", The Korea Journal of Sports Science, Vol 16, No 1, pp. 47-57, 2007.
  44. Son Min hyeok. "causal relationship between nonverbal communication of sports center instructor, service value, emotional reactions and customer satisfaction. Major in Physical Education, Busan University, 2014.
  45. Lee, Chun-Woo. The Class impact of teacher's nonverbal communication by students characteristics. Major in Physical Education, Young-nam University, 2014.
  46. Bowden, A. Q., Caldwell F. F., West, G. A. (1934). A Study in Prestige. America Journal of Sociology, p.11. 1970.