DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Abstraction and Realism on Uncanny Valley in 3D Character Model

3D 캐릭터 모델의 추상화와 리얼리즘이 언캐니 밸리 현상에 미치는 영향

  • Received : 2016.08.30
  • Accepted : 2016.10.20
  • Published : 2016.10.28

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to quantitatively and empirically investigate whether cartoon-realism, which is referred to as a guideline for avoiding the uncanny valley phenomenon, is actually effective. An experiment was carried out to investigate whether or not methods that try to realistically express the texture of human skin while making 3D models whose outward appearance abstract like a cartoon actually reduce the negative sentiments associated with the uncanny valley phenomenon. The results found that when human skin textures were applied to cartoon-type 3D models, the degree of eeriness significantly increased (p<0.05), while there was no change in the degree of human likeness. When cartoon-style skin textures were applied to human-type 3D models, there was no significant difference in the degree of eeriness, but the degree of human likeness significantly decreased (p<0.05). These results show that, cartoon realism is not actually effective, and rather creates a perceptual conflict and induces the uncanny valley phenomenon. The results of this study are expected to be used as quantitative and empirical data for developing design guidelines that will overcome the uncanny valley phenomenon in the future.

Keywords

Uncanny Valley;Eeriness;Abstraction;Cartoon-Realism;3D Character Model

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 한국연구재단

References

  1. Mi-jung Kim, "Research trends in rehabilitation program for disabled applying virtual reality technology in Korea", The Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 381-391, 2015.
  2. Ju-Yang Lee & Phil-Sik Jang, "Effects of Message Polarity and Type on Word of Mouth through SNS (Social Network Service)", The Journal of Digital Policy & Management, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 129-135, 2013.
  3. Hyung-Ho Kim & Phil-Sik Jang, "Differences in Sentiment on SNS: Comparison among Six Languages", The Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 3, pp. 165-170, 2016.
  4. Cheon-Woong Park & Jun-Woo Kim, "An Empirical Research on Information Privacy Concern in the IoT Era", The Journal of Digital Convergence, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 65-72, 2016.
  5. Flusser. V., "Lob der Oberflachlichkeit: fur eine Phanomenologie der Medien". Vol. 1. Bollmann, 1993.
  6. Mori, M., "Bukimi no tani [The uncanny valley]". Energy, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 33-35.(Translated by Karl F. MacDorman and Takashi Minato in 2005), 1970.
  7. Seyama, J., & Nagayama, R. S., "The uncanny valley: Effect of realism on the impression of artificial human faces. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments", Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 337-351, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1162/pres.16.4.337
  8. Shimada, M., Minato, T. Itakura, S., & lshiguro, H., "Uncanny valley of androids and its lateral inhibition hypothesis", The 16th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human interactive Communication, pp. 374-379, 2007.
  9. Phil-Sik Jang, "An Experimental Approach to Uncanny Valley Hypothesis", Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 47-53, 2007. https://doi.org/10.5143/JESK.2007.26.1.047
  10. Steckenfinger, S. A., & Ghazanfar, A. A., "Monkey visual behavior falls into the uncanny valley", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 106, No. 43, pp. 18362-18366, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0910063106
  11. Saygin, A. P., Chaminade, T., Ishiguro, H., Driver, J., & Frith, C., "The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions", Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, nsr025, 2011.
  12. Dae-Gyu Kim, Hye-Yun Kim, Giyeon Kim, Phil-Sik Jang, Woo Hyun Jung & Joo-Seok Hyun, "Exploratory Understanding of the Uncanny Valley Phenomena Based on Event-Related Potential Measurement", Korean Journal of the Science of Emotion and Sensibility, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 95-110, 2016. https://doi.org/10.14695/KJSOS.2016.19.1.95
  13. MacDorman, K. F., Green, R. D., Ho, C. C., & Koch, C. T., "Too real for comfort? Uncanny responses to computer generated faces", Computers in human behavior, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 695-710, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2008.12.026
  14. Burleigh, T. J., Schoenherr, J. R., & Lacroix, G. L., "Does the uncanny valley exist? An empirical test of the relationship between eeriness and the human likeness of digitally created faces.", Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.11.021
  15. MacDorman, K. F. & Ishiguro, H., "The uncanny advantage of using androids in cognitive and social science research", Interaction Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 97-337, 2006.
  16. Nam-Hoon. Kim, "Case Study on the Uncanny Valley Effect analyzed in the 2D to 3D Animation Characters", Digital Design Research, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 147-158, 2012. https://doi.org/10.17280/jdd.2012.12.3.015
  17. Ki-Duk, Kim & Heorn-Sick, Kim, "3D Stereoscopic Image Contents, and Uncanny Effect", Human Contents, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 85-110, 2011.
  18. Slick. J., "What is the Uncanny Valley?", http://3d.about.com/od/3d-101-The-Basics/ss/What-Is-The-Uncanny-Valley.htm
  19. Kyoungho Choi, Jin Ah Yoo, "A reviews on the social network analysis using R", Journal of the Korea Convergence Society, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 77-83, 2015.
  20. Wilcox, R., "Introduction to robust estimation and hypothesis testing", Academic Press, 2012.
  21. Mair, P., & F. Schoenbrod.,. "WRS2: Wilcox robust estimation and testing." R language package, available on CRAN, 2014.
  22. Salvatore S. M., "An R Companion for the Handbook of Biological Statistics", version 1.09., 2015, rcompanion.org/rcompanion/