DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Consumer Acceptability of Intramuscular Fat

  • Frank, Damian (CSIRO, Agriculture & Food) ;
  • Joo, Seon-Tea (Division of Applied Life Science (BK21+), Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Warner, Robyn (Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Science, University of Melbourne)
  • Received : 2016.09.14
  • Accepted : 2016.10.17
  • Published : 2016.12.31

Abstract

Fat in meat greatly improves eating quality, yet many consumers avoid visible fat, mainly because of health concerns. Generations of consumers, especially in the English-speaking world, have been convinced by health authorities that animal fat, particularly saturated or solid fat, should be reduced or avoided to maintain a healthy diet. Decades of negative messages regarding animal fats has resulted in general avoidance of fatty cuts of meat. Paradoxically, low fat or lean meat tends to have poor eating quality and flavor and low consumer acceptability. The failure of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets to curb "globesity" has prompted many experts to re-evaluate of the place of fat in human diets, including animal fat. Attitudes towards fat vary dramatically between and within cultures. Previous generations of humans sought out fatty cuts of meat for their superior sensory properties. Many consumers in East and Southeast Asia have traditionally valued more fatty meat cuts. As nutritional messages around dietary fat change, there is evidence that attitudes towards animal fat are changing and many consumers are rediscovering and embracing fattier cuts of meat, including marbled beef. The present work provides a short overview of the unique sensory characteristics of marbled beef and changing consumer preferences for fat in meat in general.

References

  1. Adams, A., Kitryte, V., Venskutonis, R., and De Kimpe, N. (2009) Formation and characterisation of melanoidin-like polycondensation products from amino acids and lipid oxidation products. Food Chem. 115, 904-911. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.005
  2. Almiron-Roig, D. (2010) Human perceptipons and preferences for fat-rich foods. Boca Raton (FL), USA, CRC Press.
  3. Archile-Contreras, A. C., Mandell, I. B., and Purslow, P. P. (2010) Disparity of dietary effects on collagen characteristics and toughness between two beef muscles. Meat Sci. 86, 491-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.041
  4. Baghekhandan, M. S., Okos, M. R., and Sweat, V. E. (1982) The thermal-conductivity of beef as affected by temperature and composition. T. Asae. 25, 1118-1122. https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.33681
  5. Barendse, W. (2014) Should animal fats be back on the table? A critical review of the human health effects of animal fat. Anim. Prod. Sci. 54, 831-855.
  6. Bjorklund, E. A., Heins, B. J., DiCostanzo, A., and Chester-Jones, H. (2014) Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers. J. Dairy Sci. 97, 1828-1834. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-6984
  7. Carrapiso, A. I. (2007) Effect of fat content on flavour release from sausages. Food Chem. 103, 396-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.07.037
  8. Chabanet, C., Tarrega, A., Septier, C., Siret, F., and Salles, C. (2013) Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages. Meat Sci. 94, 253-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.023
  9. Cho, S. H., Kim, J., Park, B. Y., Seong, P. N., Kang, G. H., Kim, J. H., Jung, S. G., Im, S. K., and Kim, D. H. (2010) Assessment of meat quality properties and development of a palatability prediction model for Korean Hanwoo steer beef. Meat Sci. 86, 236-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.05.011
  10. Corbin, C. H., O'Quinn, T. G., Garmyn, A. J., Legako, J. F., Hunt, M. R., Dinh, T. T. N., Rathmann, R. J., and Miller, M. F. (2015) Sensory evaluation of tender beef strip loin steaks of varying marbling levels and quality treatments. Meat Sci. 100, 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.09.009
  11. Daley, C. A., Abbott, A., Doyle, P. S., Nader, G. A., and Larson, S. (2010) A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef. Nutr. J. 9, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-9-10
  12. de Lavergne, M. D., van de Velde, F., van Boekel, M., and Stieger, M. (2015) Dynamic texture perception and oral processing of semi-solid food gels: Part 2: Impact of breakdown behaviour on bolus properties and dynamic texture perception. Food Hydrocol. 49, 61-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2015.02.037
  13. Drewnowski, A. (2015) The carbohydrate-fat problem: Can we construct a healthy diet based on dietary guidelines? Adv. Nutr. 6, 318S-325S. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.114.006973
  14. Duckett, S. K., Neel, J. P. S., Lewis, R. M., Fontenot, J. P., and Clapham, W. M. (2013) Effects of forage species or concentrate finishing on animal performance, carcass and meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 91, 1454-1467. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5914
  15. Duckett, S. K., Rosso, C. F., Lagreca, G. V., Miller, M. C., Neel, J. P. S., Lewis, R. M., Swecker, W. S., and Fontenot, J. P. (2014) Effect of frame size and time-on-pasture on steer performance, longissimus muscle fatty acid composition, and tenderness in a forage-finishing system. J. Anim. Sci. 92, 4767-4774. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-7411
  16. Elmore, J. S., Campo, M. M., Enser, M., and Mottram, D. S. (2002) Effect of lipid composition on meat-like model systems containing cysteine, ribose, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Agr. Food Chem. 50, 1126-1132. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0108718
  17. Elmore, J. S., Mottram, D. S., Enser, M., and Wood, J. D. (2000) The effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the volatile composition of cooked sheep meat. Meat Sci. 55, 149-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(99)00137-0
  18. Emerson, M. R., Woerner, D. R., Belk, K. E., and Tatum, J. D. (2013) Effectiveness of USDA instrument-based marbling measurements for categorizing beef carcasses according to differences in longissimus muscle sensory attributes. J. Anim. Sci. 91, 1024-1034. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5514
  19. Farmer, L. J. and Mottram, D. S. (1990) Interaction of lipid in the Maillard reaction between cysteine and ribose - the effect of tryglyceride and 3 phospholipids on the volatile products. J. Sci. Food Agr. 53, 505-525. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740530409
  20. Farmer, L. J. and Mottram, D. S. (1992) Effect of cysteine and ribose on the volatile thermal-degradation products of a triglyceride and 3 phospholipids. J. Sci. Food Agr. 60, 489-497. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740600414
  21. Farmer, L. J., Mottram, D. S., and Whitfield, F. B. (1989) Volatile compounds produced in Maillard reactions involving cysteine, ribose and phospholipid. J. Sci. Food Agr. 49, 347-368. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740490311
  22. Foster, K. D., Grigor, J. M. V., Cheong, J. N., Yoo, M. J. Y., Bronlund, J. E., and Morgenstern, M. P. (2011) The role of oral processing in dynamic sensory perception. J. Food Sci. 76, R49-R61. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.02029.x
  23. Frank, D., Appelqvist, I., Piyasiri, U., and Delahunty, C. (2012) In vitro measurement of volatile release in model lipid emulsions using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. J. Agr. Food Chem. 60, 2264-2273. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204120h
  24. Frank, D., Appelqvist, I., Piyasiri, U., Wooster, T., and Delahunty, C. (2011) Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry and time intensity perceptual measurement of flavor release from lipid emulsions using trained human subjects. J. Agr. Food Chem. 59, 4891-4903. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf104376b
  25. Frank, D., Ball, A., Hughes, J., Krishnamurthy, R., Piyasiri, U., Stark, J., Watkins, P., and Warner, R. (2016) Sensory and flavor chemistry characteristics of Australian beef: Influence of intramuscular fat, feed and breed. J. Agr. Food Chem. 64, 4299-4311. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00160
  26. Frank, D., Eyres, G. T., Piyasiri, U., Cochet-Broch, M., Delahunty, C. M., Lundin, L., and Appelqvist, I. M. (2015) Effects of agar gel strength and fat on oral breakdown, volatile release and sensory perception using in vivo and in vitro systems. J. Agr. Food Chem. 63, 9093-9102. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03441
  27. Frankel, E. N. (1980) Lipid oxidation. Prog. Lip. Res. 19, 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-7827(80)90006-5
  28. Galindo, M. M., Voigt, N., Stein, J., van Lengerich, J., Raguse, J. D., Hofmann, T., and Behrens, M. (2012). G protein-coupled receptors in human fat taste perception. Chem. Senses 37, 123-139. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjr069
  29. Gibis, M., Kruwinnus, M., and Weiss, J. (2015) Impact of different pan-frying conditions on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and sensory quality in fried bacon. Food Chem. 168, 383-389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.074
  30. Hidalgo, F. J., Alcon, E., and Zamora, R. (2013) Cysteine- and serine-thermal degradation products promote the formation of Strecker aldehydes in amino acid reaction mixtures. Food Res. Int. 54, 1394-1399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.09.006
  31. Higgs, J. D. (2000) The changing nature of red meat: 20 years of improving nutritional quality. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 11, 85-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(00)00055-8
  32. Hocquette, J. F., Gondret, F., Baza, E., M., dale, F., Jurie, C., and Pethick, D. W. (2010) Intramuscular fat content in meat-producing animals: Development genetic and nutritional control and identification of putative markers. Animal 4, 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109991091
  33. Hocquette, J. F., Van Wezemael, L., Chriki, S., Legrand, I., Verbeke, W., Farmer, L., Scollan, N. D., Polkinghorne, R., Rodbotten, R., Allen, P., and Pethick, D. W. (2014) Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability. Meat Sci. 97, 316-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.031
  34. Hodson, N. A. and Linden, R. W. (2004) Is there a parotid-salivary reflex response to fat stimulation in humans? Physiol. Behav. 82, 805-813. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.06.012
  35. Hunt, M. R., Garmyn, A. J., O'Quinn, T. G., Corbin, C. H., Legako, J. F., Rathmann, R. J., Brooks, J. C., and Miller, M. F. (2014) Consumer assessment of beef palatability from four beef muscles from USDA choice and select graded carcasses. Meat Sci. 98, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.04.004
  36. Jo, C., Cho, S. H., Chang, J., and Nam, K. C. (2012) Keys to production and processing of Hanwoo beef: A perspective of tradition and science. Anim. Front. 2, 32-38.
  37. Jung, E.Y., Hwang, Y. H., and Joo, S. T. (2015) Chemical components and meat quality traits related to palatability of ten primal cuts from Hanwoo carcasses. Kor. J. Food Sci. An. 35, 859-866. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2015.35.6.859
  38. Jung, E. Y., Hwang, Y. H., and Joo, S. T. (2016) The relationship between chemical composition, meat quality, and palatability of the 10 primal cuts from Hanwoo steer. Kor. J. Food Sci. An. 36, 137-143. https://doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2016.36.2.137
  39. Kim, C. J. and Lee, E. S. (2003) Effects of quality grade on the chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) beef. Meat Sci. 63, 397-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0309-1740(02)00099-2
  40. Klurfeld, D. M. (2015) Research gaps in evaluating the relationship of meat and health. Meat Sci. 109, 86-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.05.022
  41. Lawrence, G., Buchin, S., Achilleos, C., Berodier, F., Septier, C., Courcoux, P., and Salles, C. (2012) In vivo sodium release and saltiness perception in solid lipoprotein matrices. 1. Effect of composition and texture. J. Agr. Food Chem. 60, 5287-5298. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf204434t
  42. Lawrence, G. D. (2013) Dietary fats and health: Dietary recommendations in the context of scientific evidence. Adv. Nutr. 4, 294-302. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.113.003657
  43. Legako, J. F., Dinh, T. T. N., Millere, M. F., Adhikari, K., and Brooks, J. C. (2015) Effects of USDA quality grade on consumer palatability scores, trained descriptive attributes and volatile compounds of grilled beef. Meat Sci. 100, 246-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.10.013
  44. Legako, J. F., Dinh, T. T. N., Miller, M. F., Adhikari, K., and Brooks, J. C. (2016) Consumer palatability scores, sensory descriptive attributes, and volatile compounds of grilled beef steaks from three USDA quality grades. Meat Sci. 112, 77-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.10.018
  45. Li, C., Zhou, G., Xu, X., Zhang, J., Xu, S., and Ji, Y. (2006) Effects of marbling on meat quality characteristics and intramuscular connective tissue of beef Longissimus muscle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19, 1799-1808. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2006.1799
  46. Lorido, L., Estevez, M., Ventanas, J., and Ventanas, S. (2015) Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams. Meat Sci. 107, 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.03.025
  47. Maljaars, J., Romeyn, E. A., Haddeman, E., Peters, H. P., and Masclee, A. A. (2009) Effect of fat saturation on satiety, hormone release, and food intake. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89, 1019-1024. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27335
  48. Martuscelli, M., Savary, G., Pittia, P., and Cayot, N. (2008) Vapour partition of aroma compounds in strawberry flavoured custard cream and effect of fat content. Food Chem. 108, 1200-1207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.05.083
  49. Mateescu, R. G., Garrick, D. J., Garmyn, A. J., VanOverbeke, D. L., Mafi, G. G., and Reecy, J. M. (2015) Genetic parameters for sensory traits in longissimus muscle and their associations with tenderness, marbling score, and intramuscular fat in Angus cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 93, 21-27. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2014-8405
  50. Maughan, C., Tansawat, R., Cornforth, D., Ward, R., and Martini, S. (2012) Development of a beef flavor lexicon and its application to compare the flavor profile and consumer acceptance of rib steaks from grass- or grain-fed cattle. Meat Sci. 90, 116-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.06.006
  51. Mejean, C., Morzel, M., Neyraud, E., Issanchou, S., Martin, C., Bozonnet, S., Urbano, C., Schlich, P., Hercberg, S., Peneau, S, and Feron, G. (2015) Salivary composition is associated with liking and usual nutrient intake. PLoS ONE 10, e0137473. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137473
  52. Mennella, I., Fogliano, V., and Vitaglione, P. (2014) Salivary lipase and et-amylase activities are higher in overweight than in normal weight subjects: Influences on dietary behavior. Food Res. Int. 66, 463-468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.10.008
  53. Morales, R., Aguiar, A. P. S., Subiabre, I., and Realini, C. E. (2013) Beef acceptability and consumer expectations associated with production systems and marbling. Food Qual. Prefer. 29, 166-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2013.02.006
  54. Ngapo, T. M. and Dransfield, E. (2006) British consumers preferred fatness levels in beef: Surveys from 1955, 1982 and 2002. Food Qual. Prefer. 17, 412-417. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2005.05.006
  55. Ngapo, T. M., Martin, J. F., and Dransfield, E. (2007) International preferences for pork appearance: II. Factors influencing consumer choice. Food Qual. Prefer. 18, 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2005.09.007
  56. O'Quinn, T. G., Brooks, J. C., Polkinghorne, R. J., Garmyn, A. J., Johnson, B. J., Starkey, J. D., Rathmann, R. J., and Miller, M. F. (2012) Consumer assessment of beef strip loin steaks of varying fat levels. J. Anim. Sci. 90, 626-634. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4282
  57. Obretenov, T. D., Ivanova, S. D., Kuntcheva, M. J., and Somov, G. T. (1993) Melanoidin formation in cooked meat products. J. Agr. Food Chem. 41, 653-656. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00028a028
  58. Okumura, T., Saito, K., Nade, T., Misumi, S., Masuda, Y., Sakuma, H., and Kawamura, T. (2007) Effects of intramuscular fat on the sensory characteristics of M-longissimus dorsi in Japanese black steers as judged by a trained analytical panel. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20, 577-581. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2007.577
  59. Park, B. Y., Hwang, I. H., Cho, S. H., Yoo, Y. M., Kim, J. H., Lee, J. M., Polkinghorne, R., and Thompson, J. M. (2008) Effect of carcass suspension and cooking method on the palatability of three beef muscles as assessed by Korean and Australian consumers. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 48, 1396-1404. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA07189
  60. Pavan, E. and Duckett, S. K. (2013) Fatty acid composition and interrelationships among eight retail cuts of grass-feed beef. Meat Sci. 93, 371-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.09.021
  61. Purslow, P. P. (2014) New developments on the role of intramuscular connective tissue in meat toughness. Ann. Rev. Food Sci. Tech. 5, 133-153. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-food-030212-182628
  62. Ramsden, C. E., Zamora, D., Majchrzak-Hong, S., Faurot, K. R., Broste, S. K., Frantz, R. P., Davis, J. M., Ringel, A., Suchindran, C. M., and Hibbeln, J. R. (2016) Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: Analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). BMJ, 353. i1246.
  63. Running, C. A., Mattes, R. D., and Tucker, R. M. (2013) Fat taste in humans: Sources of within- and between-subject variability. Prog. Lipid Res. 52, 438-445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2013.04.007
  64. Salles, C., Chagnon, M. C., Feron, G., Guichard, E., Laboure, H., Morzel, M., Semon, E., Tarrega, A., and Yven, C. (2011) In-mouth mechanisms leading to flavor release and perception. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 51, 67-90.
  65. Scollan, N. D., Dannenberger, D., Nuernberg, K., Richardson, I., MacKintosh, S., Hocquette, J.-F., and Moloney, A. P. (2014) Enhancing the nutritional and health value of beef lipids and their relationship with meat quality. Meat Sci. 97, 384-394. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2014.02.015
  66. Simopoulos, A. P. (2008) The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Med. 233, 674-688. https://doi.org/10.3181/0711-MR-311
  67. Siri-Tarino, P. W., Sun, Q., Hu, F. B., and Krauss, R. M. (2010) Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies evaluating the association of saturated fat with cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 91, 535-546. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2009.27725
  68. Sithyphone, K., Yabe, M., Horita, H., Hayashi, K., Fumita, T., Shiotsuka, Y., Etoh, T., Ebara, F., Samadmanivong, O., Wegner, J., and Gotoh, T. (2011) Comparison of feeding systems: feed cost, palatability and environmental impact among hayfattened beef, consistent grass-only-fed beef and conventional marbled beef in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle). Anim. Sci. J. 82, 352-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2010.00836.x
  69. Smith, J. D., Hou, T., Ludwig, D. S., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W., Hu, F. B., and Mozaffarian, D. (2015) Changes in intake of protein foods, carbohydrate amount and quality, and long-term weight change: Results from 3 prospective cohorts. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 101, 1216-1224. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.100867
  70. Starkey, C. P., Geesink, G. H., Oddy, V. H., and Hopkins, D. L. (2015) Explaining the variation in lamb longissimus shear force across and within ageing periods using protein degradation, sarcomere length and collagen characteristics. Meat Sci. 105, 32-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2015.02.011
  71. Szterk, A. and Waszkiewicz-Robak, B. (2014) Influence of selected quality factors of beef on the profile and the quantity of heterocyclic aromatic amines during processing at high temperature. Meat Sci. 96, 1177-1184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.11.019
  72. Teicholz, N. (2014). The Big Fat Surprise: Why butter, meat, and cheese belong in a healthy diet. Scribe Publications Pty Limited.
  73. Thompson, J. M. (2004). The effects of marbling on flavour and juiciness scores of cooked beef, after adjusting to a constant tenderness. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 44, 645-652. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA02171
  74. Thompson, J. M., Polkinghorne, R., Hwang, I. H., Gee, A. M., Cho, S. H., Park, B. Y., and Lee, J. M. (2008). Beef quality grades as determined by Korean and Australian consumers. Aust. J. Exp. Agr. 48, 1380-1386. https://doi.org/10.1071/EA05111
  75. Tucker, R. M., Mattes, R. D., and Running, C. A. (2014) Mechanisms and effects of "fat taste" in humans. Biofactors 40, 313-326. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.1162
  76. Van Elswyk, M. E. and McNeill, S. H. (2014) Impact of grass/forage feeding versus grain finishing on beef nutrients and sensory quality: The US experience. Meat Sci. 96, 535-540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.08.010
  77. Voigt, N., Stein, J., Galindo, M. M., Dunkel, A., Raguse, J. D., Meyerhof, W., Hofmann, T., and Behrens, M. (2014) The role of lipolysis in human orosensory fat perception. J. Lipid Res. 55, 870-882. https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M046029
  78. Widmann, P., Nuernberg, K., Kuehn, C., and Weikard, R. (2011) Association of an ACSL1 gene variant with polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine skeletal muscle. BMC Genet. 12, 96.
  79. Willett, W. C. (2003) Dietary fat and obesity: Lack of an important role. Scand. J. Nutr. 47, 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/11026480308796
  80. Williams, P. and Droulez, V. (2010) Australian red meat consumption - implications of changes over 20 years on nutrient composition. Food Aust. 62, 87-94.
  81. Williams, S. L. and Mummery, K. W. (2013) Characteristics of consumers using 'better for you' front-of-pack food labelling schemes - an example from the Australian heart foundation tick. Public Health Nutr. 16, 2265-2272. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012005113
  82. Yu, M., Gao, Q., Wang, Y., Zhang, W., Li, L., Wang, Y., and Dai, Y. (2013) Unbalanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio in red meat products in China. J. Biomed. Res. 27, 366-371. https://doi.org/10.7555/JBR.27.20130066
  83. Zamora, R., Navarro, J. L., Aguilar, I., and Hidalgo, F. J. (2015) Lipid-derived aldehyde degradation under thermal conditions. Food Chem. 174, 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.034

Cited by

  1. Technological demands of meat processing–An Asian perspective vol.132, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.05.008
  2. Characteristics of Hanwoo cattle and health implications of consuming highly marbled Hanwoo beef vol.132, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2017.04.262
  3. Analysis of low-marbled Hanwoo cow meat aged with different dry-aging methods vol.30, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0318
  4. Consumer Acceptance, Emotional Response, and Purchase Intent of Rib-Eye Steaks from Grass-Fed Steers, and Effects of Health Benefit Information on Consumer Perception vol.83, pp.10, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14324
  5. Effects of cooking method and final core-temperature on cooking loss, lipid oxidation, nucleotide-related compounds and aroma volatiles of Hanwoo brisket vol.31, pp.2, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0217