- Volume 9 Issue 6
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. RESULTS: Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). CONCLUSION: Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.
- Ministry of Health and Welfare, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Korea Health Statistics 2013: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1). Cheongju: Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014.
- Strazzullo P, D'Elia L, Kandala NB, Cappuccio FP. Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 2009;339:b4567. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b4567
- Penz ED, Joffres MR, Campbell NR. Reducing dietary sodium and decreases in cardiovascular disease in Canada. Can J Cardiol 2008;24:497-501. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0828-282X(08)70625-1
- Loria CM, Obarzanek E, Ernst ND. Choose and prepare foods with less salt: dietary advice for all Americans. J Nutr 2001;131:536S-551S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/131.2.536S
- Kim HR, Kwak NS, Kim ES, Jo YY. Improving National Diet by Promoting the Nutrition Management of Institutional Foodservice. Sejong: Korean Institute for Health and Social Affairs; 2010.
- Min JH. Analysis on dietary related factors by sodium intake in adults: using the data from 2007, 2008 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey [master's thesis]. Yongin: Dankook University; 2011.
- Park HR, Jeong GO, Lee SL, Kim JY, Kang SA, Park KY, Ryou HJ. Workers intake too much salt from dishes of eating out and food service cafeterias; direct chemical analysis of sodium content. Nutr Res Pract 2009;3:328-33. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2009.3.4.328
- Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Choose a Sodium Reduced Diet at Restaurants and Worksite Cafeterias. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2014.
- Lee JH, Park SH. Development of the Evaluation Standards for Sodium Reduction at Worksite Cafeterias. Suwon: Kyonggi University; 2014.
- Arcand J, Mendoza J, Qi Y, Henson S, Lou W, L'Abbe MR. Results of a national survey examining Canadians' concern, actions, barriers, and support for dietary sodium reduction interventions. Can J Cardiol 2013;29:628-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2013.01.018
- Jung SN. A study on the sodium intake and dietary performance in patients of general and low salt diet [master's thesis]. Seoul: Yonsei University; 2009.
- Joung KS. Studies on the meal preference and adaptability on low sodium diet [master's thesis]. Kyungsan: Yeungnam University; 2008.
- Parmer SM, Salisbury-Glennon J, Shannon D, Struempler B. School gardens: an experiential learning approach for a nutrition education program to increase fruit and vegetable knowledge, preference, and consumption among second-grade students. J Nutr Educ Behav 2009;41:212-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2008.06.002
- Lee KS. Study on the perception of school dietitians about sodium and the analysis on sodium reduction using [master's thesis]. Suwon: Kyonggi University; 2012.
- Grimes CA, Riddell LJ, Nowson CA. Consumer knowledge and attitudes to salt intake and labelled salt information. Appetite 2009; 53:189-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2009.06.007
- Yoon JS. Developing Nutrition Education Model for Reducing Sodium Intake and Evaluation. Daegu: Keimyung University; 2011.
- Mohalijah MA, Boo HC, Muhammad Shahrim AK, Ainul Zakiah AB. Factors affecting dining satisfaction and acceptability of food item among athletes during a sporting event. Int Food Res J 2014;21: 1719-24.
- McIntosh A, Kubena KS, Tolle G, Dean W, Kim MJ, Jan JS, Anding J. Determinants of children's use of and time spent in fast-food and full-service restaurants. J Nutr Educ Behav 2011;43:142-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2010.04.002
- Dubowitz T, Cohen DA, Huang CY, Beckman RA, Collins RL. Using a grocery list is associated with a healthier diet and lower BMI among very high-risk adults. J Nutr Educ Behav 2015;47:259-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2015.01.005
- Oh JH, Chung SW. Multivariate analysis for clinicians. Clin Should Elbow 2013;16:63-72. https://doi.org/10.5397/CiSE.2013.16.1.63
- Nowson CA, Worsley A, Margerison C, Jorna MK, Godfrey SJ, Booth A. Blood pressure change with weight loss is affected by diet type in men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:983-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/81.5.983
- Park S, Lee J, Kwon KI, Kim JW, Byun JE, Kang BW, Choi BY, Park HK. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea. Nutr Res Pract 2014;8:719-23. https://doi.org/10.4162/nrp.2014.8.6.719
- Sarmugam R, Worsley A, Wang W. An examination of the mediating role of salt knowledge and beliefs on the relationship between socio-demographic factors and discretionary salt use: a cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2013;10:25-33. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-10-25
- Mojet J, Christ-Hazelhof E, Heidema J. Taste perception with age: generic or specific losses in threshold sensitivity to the five basic tastes? Chem Senses 2001;26:845-60. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/26.7.845
- Glanz K, Basil M, Maibach E, Goldberg J, Snyder D. Why Americans eat what they do: taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:1118-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00260-0
- Lee HS. Low Sodium Recipes. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2011.
- Nam KS, Heo GY, Kim HS. Low Salt Diet: a Spoon of Salt Threat My Body. Seoul: Miho Publishing; 2012.
- Kang BW. Sodium Reduction Policy. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2011.
- Lee SH. The study on the public relations analysis and strategy of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Cheongju: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2014.
- Yoon EK, Do MJ. Low Sodium and Low Sugar Recipes for School Menus. Seoul: Ministry of Food and Drug Safety; 2009.
- Effect of Salt Reduction on Consumer Acceptance and Sensory Quality of Food vol.6, pp.12, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6120103
- Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies—SummerStyles 2012 and 2015 vol.9, pp.8, 2017, https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9080836
- A proposition-based theorizing approach to hotel cancellation practices research pp.0959-6119, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2017-0616
Supported by : Ministry of Food and Drug Safety