DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice

  • Shin, Sung-Ho ;
  • Song, Jia-Le ;
  • Park, Myoung-Gyu ;
  • Park, Mi-Hyun ;
  • Hwang, Sung-Joo ;
  • Park, Kun-Young
  • Received : 2015.01.19
  • Accepted : 2015.05.12
  • Published : 2015.12.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Colitis is a serious health problem, and chronic obesity is associated with the progression of colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of natural raw meal (NRM) on high-fat diet (HFD, 45%) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, 2% w/v)-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Body weight, colon length, and colon weight-to-length ratio, were measured directly. Serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, leptin, and adiponectin were determined using commercial kits. Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin (IL)-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 were detected using a commercial ELISA kit. Histological study was performed using a hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining assay. Colonic mRNA expressions of TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined by RT-PCR assay. RESULTS: Body weight and obesity-related biomarkers (TG, TC, LDL, HDL, insulin, leptin, and adiponectin) were regulated and obesity was prevented in NRM treated mice. NRM significantly suppressed colon shortening and reduced colon weight-to-length ratio in HFD+DSS induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice (P < 0.05). Histological observations suggested that NRM reduced edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by HFD and DSS. In addition, NRM decreased the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-$1{\beta}$, and IL-6 and inhibited the mRNA expressions of these cytokines, and iNOS and COX-2 in colon mucosa (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that NRM has an anti-inflammatory effect against HFD and DSS-induced colitis in mice, and that these effects are due to the amelioration of HFD and/or DSS-induced inflammatory reactions.

Keywords

Natural raw meal (NRM);anti-inflammation;cytokines;iNOS;COX-2

References

  1. Song M, Kim H, Suh H. Analysis of Korea national plant used on temple food. J Korean Soc Jungshin Sci 2005;9:1-16.
  2. Lee JR. A study on Buddhist monk's dietary life in relation to the contemporary culture of well-being. J Indian Philos 2013;38:57-79.
  3. Chung SS, Jan YS. Consumer's recognition, nutrient composition, and safety evaluation of commercial Sunsik and Saengsik. Korean J Food Cult 2003;18:235-43.
  4. Kim HY, Kim JH, Lee SA, Chang HE, Park MH, Hwang SJ, Lee JY, Mok C, Hong SG. Saengshik, a formulated health food, prevents liver damage in $CCl_4$-induced mice and increases antioxidant activity in elderly women. J Med Food 2008;11:323-30. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2007.549
  5. Kim M, Kim ES, Park MH, Hwang SJ, Jeong Y. Saengshik, a formulated health food, decreases blood glucose and increases survival rate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food 2004;7:162-7. https://doi.org/10.1089/1096620041224030
  6. Kang SM, Shim JY, Hwang SJ, Hong S, Jang HE, Park MH. Effects of Saengshik supplementation on health improvement in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2003;32:906-12. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.6.906
  7. Ha TY, Kim NY. The effects of uncooked grains and vegetables with mainly brown rice on weight control and serum components in Korean overweight/obese female. Korean J Nutr 2003;36:183-90.
  8. Song MK, Hong SG, Hwang SJ, Park OJ, Park MH. Improve effects of Saengshik on patient with fatty liver and hyperlipidemia in murine. Korean J Nutr 2003;36:834-40.
  9. Lim BO, Jeong YJ, Park MH, Kim JD, Hwang SJ, Yu BP. Immunoregulatory effects of Saengshik on DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease in mouse model system. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2007;36:32-42. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2007.36.1.032
  10. Lee YJ, Lee HM, Park TS. Effects of uncooked powdered food on antioxidative system and serum mineral concentrations in rats fed unbalanced diet. Korean J Nutr 2003;36:898-907.
  11. Oh YJ, Kim JM, Song SW, Ha HC, Kim HS. Protective effect of Saengshik supplementation on lead induced toxicity in rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2005;34:959-67. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2005.34.7.959
  12. Klemans RJ, Knol EF, Michelsen-Huisman A, Pasmans SG, de Kruijf-Broekman W, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, van Hoffen E, Knulst AC. Components in soy allergy diagnostics: Gly m 2S albumin has the best diagnostic value in adults. Allergy 2013;68:1396-402. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.12259
  13. Abu-Abid S, Szold A, Klausner J. Obesity and cancer. J Med 2002;33:73-86.
  14. Gaesser GA. Carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to body mass index. J Am Diet Assoc 2007;107:1768-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2007.07.011
  15. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012;307:491-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.39
  16. Larsson SC, Wolk A. Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:556-65. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/86.3.556
  17. Nishimura S, Manabe I, Nagasaki M, Eto K, Yamashita H, Ohsugi M, Otsu M, Hara K, Ueki K, Sugiura S, Yoshimura K, Kadowaki T, Nagai R. CD8+ effector T cells contribute to macrophage recruitment and adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. Nat Med 2009;15:914-20. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.1964
  18. Baumgart DC, Carding SR. Inflammatory bowel disease: cause and immunobiology. Lancet 2007;369:1627-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60750-8
  19. Batra A, Okur B, Glauben R, Erben U, Ihbe J, Stroh T, Fedke I, Chang HD, Zeitz M, Siegmund B. Leptin: a critical regulator of CD4+ T-cell polarization in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology 2010;151:56-62. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2009-0565
  20. Abraham C, Cho JH. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med 2009;361:2066-78. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0804647
  21. Rovedatti L, Kudo T, Biancheri P, Sarra M, Knowles CH, Rampton DS, Corazza GR, Monteleone G, Di Sabatino A, Macdonald TT. Differential regulation of interleukin 17 and interferon gamma production in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 2009;58:1629-36. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.2009.182170
  22. Mudter J, Neurath MF. IL-6 signaling in inflammatory bowel disease: pathophysiological role and clinical relevance. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007;13:1016-23. https://doi.org/10.1002/ibd.20148
  23. Teixeira LG, Leonel AJ, Aguilar EC, Batista NV, Alves AC, Coimbra CC, Ferreira AV, de Faria AM, Cara DC, Alvarez Leite JI. The combination of high-fat diet-induced obesity and chronic ulcerative colitis reciprocally exacerbates adipose tissue and colon inflammation. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:204. https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-511X-10-204
  24. Park J, Yang M, Jun HS, Lee JH, Bae HK, Park T. Effect of raw brown rice and Job's tear supplemented diet on serum and hepatic lipid concentrations, antioxidative system, and immune function of rats. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 2003;32:197-206. https://doi.org/10.3746/jkfn.2003.32.2.197
  25. Lee SG, Kim B, Yang Y, Pham TX, Park YK, Manatou J, Koo SI, Chun OK, Lee JY. Berry anthocyanins suppress the expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages by inhibiting nuclear translocation of $NF-{\kappa}B$ independent of NRF2-mediated mechanism. J Nutr Biochem 2014;25:404-411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.12.001
  26. Perse M, Cerar A. Dextran sodium sulphate colitis mouse model: traps and tricks. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012;2012:718617.
  27. Liu RH. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:517S-520S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.517S
  28. Raigond B. Resistant starch in food: a review. J Sci Food Agric 2015;95:1968-1978. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.6966
  29. Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Hamidi M, Marchie A, Jenkins AL, Axelsen M. Glycemic index: overview of implications in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:266S-273S. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/76.1.266S
  30. Ridker PM, Hennekens CH, Buring JE, Rifai N. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 2000;342:836-43. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200003233421202
  31. Bartucci M, Svensson S, Ricci-Vitiani L, Dattilo R, Biffoni M, Signore M, Ferla R, De Maria R, Surmacz E. Obesity hormone leptin induces growth and interferes with the cytotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil in colorectal tumor stem cells. Endocr Relat Cancer 2010;17:823-33. https://doi.org/10.1677/ERC-10-0083
  32. Engeli S, Feldpausch M, Gorzelniak K, Hartwig F, Heintze U, Janke J, Mohlig M, Pfeiffer AF, Luft FC, Sharma AM. Association between adiponectin and mediators of inflammation in obese women. Diabetes 2003;52:942-7. https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.4.942
  33. Vowinkel T, Kalogeris TJ, Mori M, Krieglstein CF, Granger DN. Impact of dextran sulfate sodium load on the severity of inflammation in experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci 2004;49:556-64. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:DDAS.0000026298.72088.f7
  34. Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:1027-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00273-8
  35. Park DK, Park HJ. Ethanol extract of Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice suppresses inflammatory responses in mice with acute DSS-induced colitis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013;2013:914524.
  36. Park MY, Kim JH, Park DS. Anti-inflammatory activities of hog millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) in murine macrophages through IRAK-4 signaling. Korean J Food Nutr 2011;24:268-72. https://doi.org/10.9799/ksfan.2011.24.2.268
  37. Holt EM, Steffen LM, Moran A, Basu S, Steinberger J, Ross JA, Hong CP, Sinaiko AR. Fruit and vegetable consumption and its relation to markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 2009;109:414-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.036
  38. Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Nakatsugi S, Wakabayashi K. COX-2 and iNOS, good targets for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Biofactors 2000;12:129-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/biof.5520120120
  39. Paixao J, Dinis TC, Almeida LM. Malvidin-3-glucoside protects endothelial cells up-regulating endothelial NO synthase and inhibiting peroxynitrite-induced NF-kB activation. Chem Biol Interact 2012; 199:192-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2012.08.013
  40. Stephen AM, Cummings JH. Mechanism of action of dietary fibre in the human colon. Nature 1980;284:283-4. https://doi.org/10.1038/284283a0
  41. Ferguson LR, Tasman-Jones C, Englyst H, Harris PJ. Comparative effects of three resistant starch preparations on transit time and short-chain fatty acid production in rats. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:230-7. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327914NC3602_13
  42. Sajilata MG, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. Resistant starch - a review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2006;5:1-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2006.tb00076.x

Cited by

  1. Whole grain cereal attenuates obesity-induced muscle atrophy by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway in obese C57BL/6N mice vol.27, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-017-0277-x

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Center of Efficacy Evaluation for the Development of Health Products Targeting Digestive Disorders (NCEED)