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The micosporine-like amino acids-rich aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) inhibits adipogenesis and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

  • Kim, Hyunhee ;
  • Lee, Yunjung ;
  • Han, Taejun ;
  • Choi, Eun-Mi
  • Received : 2015.03.31
  • Accepted : 2015.06.16
  • Published : 2015.12.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Increased mass of adipose tissue in obese persons is caused by excessive adipogenesis, which is elaborately controlled by an array of transcription factors. Inhibition of adipogenesis by diverse plant-derived substances has been explored. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of the aqueous methanol extract of laver (Porphyra yezoensis) on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and to investigate the mechanism underlying the effect of the laver extract. MATERIALS/METHODS: 3T3-L1 cells were treated with various concentrations of laver extract in differentiation medium. Lipid accumulation, expression of adipogenic proteins, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein ${\alpha}$, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}$, fatty acid binding protein 4, and fatty acid synthase, cell viability, apoptosis, and the total content and the ratio of reduced to oxidized forms of glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were analyzed. RESULTS: Treatment with laver extract resulted in a significant decrease in lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which showed correlation with a reduction in expression of adipogenic proteins. Treatment with laver extract also resulted in a decrease in the viability of preadipocytes and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Treatment with laver extract led to exacerbated depletion of cellular glutathione and abolished the transient increase in GSH/GSSG ratio during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CONCLUSION: Results of our study demonstrated that treatment with the laver extract caused inhibition of adipogenesis, a decrease in proliferation of preadipocytes, and an increase in the apoptosis of mature adipocytes. It appears that these effects were caused by increasing oxidative stress, as demonstrated by the depletion and oxidation of the cellular glutathione pool in the extract-treated adipocytes. Our results suggest that a prooxidant role of laver extract is associated with its antiadipogenic and proapoptotic effects.

Keywords

Laver extract;adipogenesis;apoptosis;oxidative stress;glutathione

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Acknowledgement

Grant : 뷰티산업 글로컬 리더 육성 사업단