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Lung Cancer in a Rural Area of China: Rapid Rise in Incidence and Poor Improvement in Survival

  • Yang, Juan (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital) ;
  • Zhu, Jian (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital) ;
  • Zhang, Yong-Hui (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital) ;
  • Chen, Yong-Sheng (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital) ;
  • Ding, Lu-Lu (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital) ;
  • Kensler, Thomas W (Department of Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh) ;
  • Chen, Jian-Guo (Qidong Liver Cancer Institute / Qidong People's Hospital)
  • Published : 2015.11.04

Abstract

Background: Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. Materials and Methods: The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972-2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. Results: The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Conclusions: Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.

Keywords

Lung cancer;population-based cancer registry;incidence;observed survival;relative survival

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