Perspectives of Women during Reproductive Years for Cervical Cancer Scans and Influencing Factors

  • Acar, Gokce Banu (Department of Oncology, Ankara Ataturk Training And Research Hospital) ;
  • Pinar, Gul (Director of Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Yildirim Beyazit University)
  • 발행 : 2015.11.04


Background: This descriptive study was performed in order to assess health perspectives of women, who applied to Yildirim Beyazit University Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Outpatient Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology for cervical cancer scans and were in the reproductive years. Factors influencing their perspectives were also assessed. Materials and Methods: In this study, a simple random sampling formula was adopted to calculate the volume (300) of the targeted sample. Results of the research were obtained through individual diagnosis form and cervical cancer and the Pap smear test health belief model scale (HBMS). Results: It was found that 75.0% of the women heard of the Pap smear test before, and 48.7% had undertaken one. Some 51.4% of the women who had Pap smear test expressed that they had the test at irregular periods. Most of the women stated that they heard about the smear test from the health staff (51.7%). Lack of any health complaints (28.3%) and not having adequate information about the test (21.0%) were among the reasons for not undergoing a Pap smear test. It was found that lower dimension average scores of the women obtained from the cervical cancer and Pap smear test HBMS varied from $7.7{\pm}2.3$ to $33.5{\pm}9.3$. When the lower dimension average scores of women from the HBMS were examined, the perception of usefulness was high but the susceptibility and health motivations were low. Conclusions: In this study, it was determined that the awareness of women about cervical cancer and the Pap smear test was insufficient, and susceptibility and motivation perception towards having a Pap smear test were low.


Risk factors-reproductive period;cervical cancer;health perspectives;health belief;Turkish women


  1. Abotchie PN, Shokar NK (2009). Cervical cancer screening among college students in Ghana: knowledge and health beliefs. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 19, 412-6.
  2. Acikgoz A, Cehreli R, Ellidokuz H (2011). Women’s knowledge and attitude about cancer and the behaviour for early diagnosis procedures. Dokuz Eylul University J Faculty Med, 25, 145-54.
  3. Ak M, Canbal M, Turan S, et al (2010). Attitude concerning the Papsmear test of women who admitted to the family medicine out patient clinic. Konuralp J, 2, 1-4.
  4. Akyuz A, Guvenc G, Yavan T, et al (2006). Evaluation of the Papsmear test status of women and of the factors affecting this status. Gulhane Med J, 48, 25-9.
  5. Al-Darwish AA, Al-Naim AF, Al-Mulhim KS, et al (2014). Knowledge about cervical cancer early warning signs and symptoms, risk factors and vaccination among students at a medical school in Al-Ahsa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 2529-32.
  6. American Cancer Society (ACS) (2007). Cancer prevention and early detection, facts and figures, Retrieved 2014-03-28 from Cancer Facts and Figures 2007 rev.pdf.
  7. Barry HC, Smith M, Weismantel D, et al (2007). The feasibility of risk-based cervical cancer screening. Prev Med, 45, 125-9.
  8. Basen-Engquist K, Paskett ED, Buzaglo J, et al (2003). Cervical cancer, behavioral factors related to screening, diagnosis and survivors quality of life. Cancer, 98, 2009-14.
  9. Behbakht K, Lynch A, Teal S, et al (2004). Social and cultural barriers to papanicolaou test screening an urban population. Obstet Gynecol, 104, 1355-61.
  10. Bekar M, Guler H, Evcili F, et al (2013). Determining the knowledge of women and their attitudes regarding gynecological cancer prevention. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 6055-9.
  11. Damiani G, Federico B, Basso D, et al (2012). Socioeconomic disparities in the uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening in Italy: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health, 12, 99.
  12. Demirtas B, Acikgoz I (2013). Promoting attendance at cervical cancer screening: understanding the relationship with turkish womens’ health beliefs. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 333-40.
  13. Dozier KJ, Lawrence D (2000). Socio-demographic predictors of adherence to annual cervical cancer screening in minority women. Cancer Nurs, 23, 350-6.
  14. Duran ET (2011). Examination with the health belief model of women’s attitudes to cervical cancer and early diagnosis in Turkey: A qualitative study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1179-84.
  15. Eke NO, Ezeama C, Eke CO (2010). Knowledge of cervical cancer and its screening amongst female workers in Newi, Nigeria. Afrimedic J, 1, 31-6.
  16. Ertem G (2010). Home care in gynecological cancers. Turkish J Oncol, 25, 124-32.
  17. Ezem BU (2007). Awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening in Owerri, South-Eastern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med, 6, 94-8.
  18. Gharoro EP, Ikeanyi EN (2006). An appraisal of the level of awareness and utilization of the papsmear as a cervical cancers creening test among female health workers in a tertiary health institution. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16, 1063-8.
  19. Gucuk S, Servet A, Arica S (2011). Van mother-child health and family planning center Pap smear clinics of information, evaluation of applicants. TAF Prev Med Bull, 10, 527-32.
  20. Gumus AB, Cam O (2011). Relationships between early diagnosis attitudes in cervical cancer of women and levels of self-esteem, body perception and hopelessness. Medicus Nobel, 7, 46-52.
  21. Guner H, Taskiran C (2007). Epidemiology of cervical cancer and the role of human papilloma virus. Turkish J Obstet Gynecol, 4, 11-9.
  22. Guvenc G, Akyuz A, Acikel CH (2011). Health belief model scale for cervical cancer and papsmear test: psychometric testing. J Adv Nurs, 67, 428-37.
  23. Hadi N, Azimirad A (2010). Knowledge attitude and practice of women in Shiraz about cervical cancer and Papsmear 2009. Iranian J Cancer Prev, 3, 117-26.
  24. Hislop TG, Teh C, Lai A, et al (2004). Pap screening and knowledge of risk factors for cervical cancer in Chinese women in British Columbia, Canada. Ethn Health, 9, 267-81.
  25. Jemal A, Thomas A, Murray T, et al (2002). Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin, 52, 23-47.
  26. Kalyoncu C, Isikli B, Ozalp S, et al (2003). Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about Pap smear of women who applicants department of obstetrics and gynecology Osmangazi University. Health Society, 13, 60-6.
  27. Kanbur A, Capik C (2011). Cervical cancer prevention, early diagnosis-screening methods and midwives / nurses role. Hacettepe University Faculty of Health Sci Nurs J, 18, 61-72.
  28. Karaca M, Palanci Y, Aksu S (2008). Pap smear how much is known, how much is being implemented? Turkiye Klinikleri J Gynecol Obst, 18, 22-8.
  29. Kivistik A, Lang K, Baili P, Anttila A, Virus P (2011). Women's knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, screening, and reasons for non-participation in cervical cancer screening programme in Estonia. BMC Women’s Health, 11, 43.
  30. Lam TK, McPhee SJ, Mock J, et al (2003). Encouraging Vietnamese-American women to obtain Pap test through lay health worker outreach and media education. J Gen Intern Med, 18, 516-24.
  31. Lee-Lin F, Pett M, Menon U, et al (2007). Cervical cancer beliefs and Pap test screening practices among Chinese American immigrants. Oncol Nurs Forum, 34, 1203-9.
  32. Mbamara SU, Ikpeze OC, Okonkwo JE, et al (2011). Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among women attending gynecology clinics in a tertiary level medical care center in southeastern Nigeria. J Reprod Med, 56, 491-6.
  33. Mc Donald PA, Thorne DD, Pearson JC, et al (1999). Perceptions and knowledge of breast cancer among African American women residing in public housing. Ethn Dis, 9, 81-93.
  34. Mc Farland DM (2003). Cervical cancer and papsmear screening in Botswana: knowledge and perceptions. Int Nurs Rev, 50, 167-75.
  35. Ministry of Health (2010). Health statistics annual, retrieved 2014-02-15, from
  36. Moreira ED, Oliveira BG, Ferraz FM, et al (2006). Knowledge and attitudes about human papilloma virus, Pap smears, and cervical cancer among young women in Brazil: Implications for health education and prevention. Int J Gynecol Cancer, 16, 599-603.
  37. Mutyaba T, Mmiro FA, Weiderpass E (2006). Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. BMC Med Educ, 1, 6-13.
  38. Natphopsuk S, Settheetham-Ishida W, Sinawat S, et al (2012). Risk factors for cervical cancer in northeastern Thailand: detailed analyses of sexual and smoking behavior. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 13, 5489-95.
  39. Nazlican E, Akbaba M, Koyuncu H, et al (2010). Cervical cancer screening between 35-40 aged women at Kisecik region of Hatay provinence. TAF Prev Med Bull, 9, 471-4.
  40. Ozan H (2005). Pap Smear: When? How? Who is from?. Turkish J Obstet Gynecol, 2, 35-40.
  41. Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, et al (2005). Global cancer statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin, 55, 74-108.
  42. Pinar G, Topuz S, Dogan N, et al (2009). The knowledge and practice of girls tudents of Baskent University about cervix cancer and its prevention. Turkish J Gynaecologic Oncol, 3, 66-73.
  43. Reis N, Beji KN, Coskun A (2010). Quality of life and sexual functioning in gynecological cancer patients: results from quantitative and qualitaty data. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 14, 137-46.
  44. Saegrov S, Halding AG (2004). What is it like living with the diagnosis of cancer? Eur J Cancer Care, 13, 145-53.
  45. Shekhar S, Sharma C, Thakur S, et al (2013). Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 3641-5.
  46. Urasa M, Darj E (2011). Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices of nurses at a regional hospital in Tanzania. African Health Sci, 11, 48-57.
  47. WHO, Cancer, Retrieved 2014-03-20, from
  48. WHO (2006). Comprehensive cervical cancer control: a guide to essential practice, Retrieved 2014-05-15 from health/publications/cervical_cancer_gep/text.pdf.

피인용 문헌

  1. Factors affecting Pap smear uptake in a maternity hospital: A descriptive cross-sectional study vol.74, pp.11, 2018,