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Cytotoxicity of Cratoxylum Formosum Subsp. Pruniflorum Gogel Extracts in Oral Cancer Cell Lines

  • Promraksa, Bundit (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Daduang, Jureerut (Department of Clinical Chemistry, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Chaiyarit, Ponlatham (Department of Oral Diagnosis, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree (Centre for Research and Development of Medical Diagnostic Laboratories, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Khampitak, Tueanjit (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Rattanata, Narintorn (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Tangrassameeprasert, Roongpet (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University) ;
  • Boonsiri, Patcharee (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University)
  • Published : 2015.11.04

Abstract

Background: Oral cancer is a health problem in Thailand. Cratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorum Gogel (Teawdang), normally consumed in northeast Thailand, has proven cytotoxic to cervical cancer cell lines including HeLa, SiHa and C-33A. Recently, Asian oral cancer cell lines, ORL-48 and ORL-136, were established. Therefore, we aimed to study cytotoxicity of Teawdang in these. Total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity of Teawdang were also determined. Materials and Methods: Teawdang was purchased from Khon Kaen market during June-October 2013. Hexane (CHE), ethyl acetate (CEE) and methanol (CME) extracts of its edible part were analyzed for TPC by the folin-ciocalteau method and for TFC by an aluminium colorimetric method. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity in normal Vero cells and oral cancer cells were investigated. Cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Results: CME and CEE had higher TPC and TFC and antioxidant activity than CHE. Both CME and CEE, at $200{\mu}g$ dry wt/mL, were cytotoxic to the studied oral cancer cell lines. However, CME was cytotoxic to Vero cells whereas CEE was not. Compared to Vero cells, CEE significantly inhibited ORL-48 and ORL-136 growth (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). Conclusions: CEE exhibited cytotoxic effects on the studied oral cancer cell lines but not normal Vero cells. The bioactive compounds in CEE should be further purified and elucidated for their mechanisms of action for development as anticancer agents.

Keywords

Antioxidant;cytotoxicity;Cratoxylum formosum subsp. pruniflorum Gogel;oral cancer cell line

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