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Multi-Parameter Approach for Evaluation of Genomic Instability in the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

  • Sekar, Nishu (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University) ;
  • Nair, Manju (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University) ;
  • Francis, Glory (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University) ;
  • Kongath, Parvathy Raj (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University) ;
  • Babu, Sandhya (Sandhya Hospital) ;
  • Raja, Sudhakaran (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University) ;
  • Gopalakrishnan, Abilash Valsala (Division of Biomolecules and Genetics, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University)
  • Published : 2015.11.04

Abstract

Background: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation, is a common endocrine disorder in women. PCOS, which is associated with polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity and insulin resistance, is a leading cause of female infertility. In this condition there is an imbalance in female sex hormones. All the sequelae symptoms of PCOS gradually lead to cancer in the course of time. It is heterogeneous disorder of unknown etiology so it is essential to find the exact cause. Materials and Methods: In this study both invasive and non-invasive techniques were employed to establish the etiology. Diagnosis was based on Rotterdam criteria (hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, PCOM) and multiparameters using buccal samples and dermatoglypic analysis and cytogenetic study for 10 cases and four age and sex matched controls. Results: In clinical analysis we have observed the mean value of total testosterone level was 23.6nmol/L, total hirsutism score was from 12-24, facial acne was found in in 70% patients with 7-12 subcapsular follicular cysts, each measuring 2-8 mm in diameter. In dermatoglypic analysis we observed increases in mean value ($45.9^{\circ}$) of ATD angle when compared with control group and also found increased frequency (38%) of Ulnar loops on both fingers (UU), (18%) whorls on the right finger and Ulnar loop on left finger (WU) and (16%) arches on right and left fingers (AA) were observed in PCOS patients when compared with control subjects. Features which could be applied as markers for PCOS patients are the presence of Ulnar loops in middle and little fingers of right and left hand. The buccal micronucleus cytome assay in exfoliated buccal cells, we found decrease in frequency of micronuclei and significant increases in frequency of karyolysed nuclei in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients. Chromosome aberration analysis revealed a significant increase in frequency of chromosome aberrations (CAs) in PCOS patients when compared with controls. Conclusions: From this present work it can be concluded that non-invasive technique like dermatoglypics analysis and buccal micronucleus cytome assays with exfoliated buccal cell can also be effective biomarkers for PCOS, along with increased CAs in lymphocytes as a sign of genetic instability. There is a hypothesis that micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations could have a predictive value for cancer. From this present work it can be concluded to some extent that non-invasive technique like dermatoglypics and buccal cell analysis can also be effective for diagnosis.

Keywords

Polycystic ovary syndrome;cytogenetic;dermatoglypics;buccal micronuclei analysis

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