Human Kallikrein-2, Prostate Specific Antigen and Free-Prostate Specific Antigen in Combination to Discriminate Prostate Cancer from Benign Diseases in Syrian Patients

  • Bachour, Dala-Maria (Master Student, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damascus University) ;
  • Chahin, Emil (Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Damascus University) ;
  • Al-Fahoum, Sahar (Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Damascus University)
  • Published : 2015.11.04


Background: The high incidence of prostate cancer as the most common malignancy in males in many countries raises the question of developing reliable detection tests. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is the most widely used for screening for prostate cancer; however, its low specificity elevates the number of unnecessarily biopsies. Serum human kallikrein-2 (hK2) is considered as a promising marker, and especially its ratio to fPSA, for predicting the presence of malignancy to select the best choice referring to biopsy or surveillance. In this study, we investigated the role of hK2 and its combinations with other markers to discriminate prostate cancer from benign diseases in Syrian patients. Materials and Methods: In this prospective oriented cross-sectional cohort study, serum samples were collected from patients referred to many Hospitals in Damascus, Syria, between May 2011 and March 2012, and diagnosed with biopsy proven benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer (PCa). Serum was analyzed for hK2, PSA and fPSA, and the ratios of fPSA/PSA and hK2/fPSA were calculated. Results: We found that mean hK2/fPSA ratios were significantly higher (P=0.01) in prostate cancer patients than in the BPH or control groups. Also the ratio hk2/fPSA gave the largest area under the curve (AUC:0.96) which was significantly larger than for fPSA/PSA (AUC:0.41) indicative of higher specificity. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the ratio of hK2/fPSA might be superior to the use of fPSA/PSA alone. The hK2 could be shown to enhance the early detection of prostate cancer; especially the ratio hK2/fPSA improves specificity and hence may reduce the number of negative biopsies.


Prostate cancer;detection tests;PSA;fPSA;hK2


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