- Volume 16 Issue 16
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Burden of Cancers Related to Smoking among the Indonesian Population: Premature Mortality Costs and Years of Potential Life Lost
- Kristina, Susi Ari (Management and Community Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University) ;
- Endarti, Dwi (Management and Community Pharmacy Division, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University) ;
- Prabandari, Yayi Suryo (Public Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University) ;
- Ahsan, Abdillah (Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia) ;
- Thavorncharoensap, Montarat (Social and Administrative Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University)
- Published : 2015.11.04
Background: As smoking is the leading preventable cause of multiple diseases and premature cancer deaths, estimating the burden of cancer attributable to smoking has become the standard in documenting the adverse impact of smoking. In Indonesia, there is a dearth of studies assessing the economic costs of cancers related to smoking. This study aimed to estimate indirect mortality costs of premature cancer deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) attributable to smoking among the Indonesian population. Materials and Methods: A prevalence based method was employed. Using national data, we estimated smoking-attributable cancer mortality in 2013. Premature mortality costs and YPLL were estimated by calculating number of cancer deaths, life expectancy, annual income, and workforce participation rate. A human capital approach was used to calculate the present value of lifetime earnings (PVLE). A discount rate of 3% was applied. Results: The study estimated that smoking attributable cancer mortality was 74,440 (30.6% of total cancer deaths), comprised of 95% deaths in men and 5% in women. Cancers attributed to smoking wereresponsible for 1,207,845 YPLL. Cancer mortality costs caused by smoking accounted for USD 1,309 million in 2013. Among all cancers, lung cancer is the leading cause of death and economic burden. Conclusions: Cancers related to smoking pose an enormous economic burden in Indonesia. Therefore, tobacco control efforts need to be prioritized in order to prevent more losses to the nation. The data of this study are important for advocating national tobacco control policy.
Smoking;cancer;YPLL;premature mortality cost;Indonesia
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