- Volume 16 Issue 15
DOI QR Code
Breast Cancer Awareness among Middle Class Urban Women - a Community-Based Study from Mumbai, India
- Gadgil, Anita (Department of Surgery, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) ;
- Sauvaget, Catherine (Screening Group, Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research in Cancer) ;
- Roy, Nobhojit (Department of Surgery, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) ;
- Frie, Kirstin Grosse (Screening Group, Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research in Cancer) ;
- Chakraborty, Anuradha (Community Dispensaries, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) ;
- Lucas, Eric (Screening Group, Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research in Cancer) ;
- Bantwal, Kanchan (Community Dispensaries, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) ;
- Haldar, Indrani (Community Dispensaries, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre) ;
- Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy (Screening Group, Early Detection and Prevention Section, International Agency for Research in Cancer)
- Published : 2015.10.06
Targeting breast cancer awareness along with comprehensive cancer care is appropriate in low and middle income countries like India, where there are no organized and affordable screening services. It is essential to identify the existing awareness about breast cancer in the community prior to launching an organized effort. This study assessed the existing awareness about breast cancer amongst women and their health seeking practices in an urban community in Mumbai, India. A postal survey was undertaken with low or no cost options for returning the completed questionnaires. The majority of the women were aware about cancer but awareness about symptoms and signs was poor. Women were willing to accept more information about cancer and those with higher awareness scores were more likely to seek medical help. They were also more likely to have undergone breast examination in the past and less likely to use alternative medicines. High income was associated with better awareness but this did not translate into better health seeking behaviour. Organized programmes giving detailed information about breast cancer and its symptoms are needed and women from all income categories need to be encouraged for positive change towards health seeking. Further detailed studies regarding barriers to health seeking in India are necessary.
- Agarwal G, Ramakant P (2008). Breast cancer care in India: the current scenario and the challenges for the future. Breast Care, 3, 21-27.
- Akhigbe AO, Omuemu VO (2009). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city. BMC Cancer, 9, 203. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-9-203
- Anderson BO, Cazap E, El Saghir NS, et al (2011). Optimisation of breast cancer management in low-resource and middleresource countries: executive summary of the Breast Health Global Initiative consensus, 2010. Lancet Oncol, 12, 387-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(11)70031-6
- Memon ZA, Shaikh AN, Rizwan S, Sardar MB (2013). Reasons for patient's delay in diagnosis of breast carcinoma in Pakistan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 7409-14.
- Banerjee AV, Duflo E (2008). What is middle class about the middle classes around the world? J Econ Perspect, 22, 3-28.
- Boon H, Westlake K, Stewart M, et al (2003). Use of complementary/alternative medicine by men diagnosed with prostate cancer: prevalence and characteristics. Urology, 62, 849-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0090-4295(03)00668-X
- Chandramouli C (2011) 'Census of India 2011. Rural urban distribution of population (provisional population totals)'. Registrar General & Census Commissioner: New Delhi.
- Cummings SM, Savitz LA, Konrad TR (2001). Reported response rates to mailed physician questionnaires. Health Serv Res, 35, 1347-55.
- Edwards PJ, Roberts I, Clarke MJ, et al (2009). Methods to increase response to postal and electronic questionnaires. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 8.
- El Saghir NS, Adebamowo CA, Anderson BO, et al (2011). Breast cancer management in low resource countries (LRCs): consensus statement from the Breast Health Global Initiative. Breast, 20, 3-11.
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al (2013). 'GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]' International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon (Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed on 10/01/2015).
- Garg P, Bansal M, Garg M, et al (2010). Creating awareness about the painless nature of early breast cancer lump is important in low-income countries. Breast J, 16, 101-2. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4741.2009.00847.x
- Gibson PJ, Koepsell TD, Diehr P, et al (1999). Increasing response rates for mailed surveys of Medicaid clients and other low-income populations. Am J Epidemiol, 149, 1057-1062. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a009751
- Grosse Frie K, Ramadas K, Anju GA, et al (2013). Determinants of participation in a breast cancer screening trial in trivandrum district, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 7301-7. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.12.7301
- Gupta N, Solomon J, Raja K (2011). Employment after paraplegia in India: a postal survey. Spinal Cord, 49, 806-811. https://doi.org/10.1038/sc.2011.1
- Gupta NP, Ansari MS, Nabi G (2007). National survey on orthotopic neobladder. Int Urol Nephrol, 39, 143-148. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11255-006-9019-3
- Hvidberg L, Pedersen AF, Wulff CN, et al (2014). Cancer awareness and socio-economic position: results from a population-based study in Denmark. BMC Cancer, 14, 581. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-581
- Kumar Y, Mishra G, Gupta S, et al (2011a). Cancer screening for women living in urban slums--acceptance and satisfaction. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1681-5.
- Kumar YS, Mishra G, Gupta S, et al (2011b). Level of cancer awareness among women of low socioeconomic status in Mumbai slums. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 1295-8.
- Mahendra S, Rita M, Saini GL, et al (2014). Knowledge, attitude and practices towards cancer among urban dwellers of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. Int J REs Health Sci, 2, 254-262.
- Maree JE, Wright SC (2010). How would early detection be possible? An enquiry into cancer related knowledge, understanding and health seeking behaviour of urban Black women in Tshwane, South Africa. Eur J Oncol Nurs, 14, 190-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2009.10.009
- Mayur SS, Radhika MS, Anshuman A (2013). Cancer awareness among females or urban slums in their reproductive age group. Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol, 2, 509-513. https://doi.org/10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20131204
- Meherishi S, Khandelwal S, Swarankar ML, et al (2010). Attitudes and practices of gynecologists in Jaipur toward management of menopause. J Midlife Health, 1, 74-78.
- Rao RS, Nair S, Nair NS, et al (2005). Acceptability and effectiveness of a breast health awareness programme for rural women in India. Indian J Med Sci, 59, 398-402. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5359.16817
- Saghatchian M, Bihan C, Chenailler C, et al (2014). Exploring frontiers: use of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with early-stage breast cancer. Breast, 23, 279-285. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2014.01.009
- Sankaranarayanan R, Alwan N, Denny L (2013). How can we improve survival from breast cancer in developing countries? Breast Cancer Manag, 2, 179-183. https://doi.org/10.2217/bmt.13.11
- Sankaranarayanan R, Ferlay J (2013). Burden of breast and gynecological cancers in low-resource countries. In 'Breast and gynecological cancers: an integrated approach for screening and early diagnosis in developing countries', ed. mk shetty. springer science & Bussiness Media, New York pp. 1-17.
- Saxena R (2010). The middle class in India. Issues and opportunities. Deutsche Bank Research, 1-4.
- Seth T, Kotwal A, Thakur R, et al (2005). Common cancers in India: knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of urban slum dwellers in New Delhi. Public Health, 119, 87-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2004.05.013
- Somdatta P, Baridalyne N (2008). Awareness of breast cancer in women of an urban resettlement colony. Indian J Cancer, 45, 149-153. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-509X.44662
- Sreedevi A, Quereshi MA, Kurian B, et al (2014). Screening for breast cancer in a low middle income country: predictors in a rural area of Kerala, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 15, 1919-24. https://doi.org/10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.5.1919
- Takiar R, Srivastav A (2008). Time trend in breast and cervix cancer of women in India - (1990-2003). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 9, 777-80.
- Wang BR, Chang YL, Chen TJ, et al (2014). Coprescription of Chinese herbal medicine and Western medication among female patients with breast cancer in Taiwan: analysis of national insurance claims. Patient Prefer Adherence, 8, 671-682.
- Mammographic Screening or Breast Cancer Awareness? Time to Ponder vol.79, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12262-017-1672-5
- A Survey on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Medical, Paramedical, and General Population in North India Using Self-Designed Questionnaire: a Prospective Study pp.0976-6952, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13193-017-0703-9
- Prevalence of breast-related symptoms, health care seeking behaviour and diagnostic needs among women in Burkina Faso vol.18, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5360-6