DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

FRP versus traditional strengthening on a typical mid-rise Turkish RC building

  • Smyrou, Eleni (Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul Technical University)
  • Received : 2015.04.03
  • Accepted : 2015.10.02
  • Published : 2015.11.25

Abstract

This paper investigates the limits and efficacies of the Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) material for strengthening mid-rise RC buildings against seismic actions. Turkey, the region of the highest seismic risk in Europe, is chosen as the case-study country, the building stock of which consists in its vast majority of mid-rise RC residential and/or commercial buildings. Strengthening with traditional methods is usually applied in most projects, as ordinary construction materials and no specialized workmanship are required. However, in cases of tight time constraints, architectural limitations, durability issues or higher demand for ductile performance, FRP material is often opted for since the most recent Turkish Earthquake Code allows engineers to employ this advanced-technology product to overcome issues of inadequate ductility or shear capacity of existing RC buildings. The paper compares strengthening of a characteristically typical mid-rise Turkish RC building by two methods, i.e., traditional column jacketing and FRP strengthening, evaluating their effectiveness with respect to the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code. The effect of FRP confinement is explicitly taken into account in the numerical model, unlike the common procedure followed according to which the demand on un-strengthened members is established and then mere section analyses are employed to meet the additional demands.

References

  1. Bal, I.E., Crowley, H., Pinho, R. and Gulay, F.G. (2008), "Detailed assessment of structural characteristics of Turkish RC building stock for loss assessment models", Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., 28(10-11), 914-932. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soildyn.2007.10.005
  2. Basaran, V. (2006), "Mevcut betonarme yapilarin itme analizi ile hesabi ve Japon Sismik Indis Yontemi ile karsilastirilmasi", MSc Thesis, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar. (in Turkish)
  3. Becque, J., Patnaik, A.K. and Rizkalla, S.H. (2003), "Analytical models for concrete confined with FRP tubes", J. Compos. Constr., 7(1), 31-38. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2003)7:1(31)
  4. Bisby, L.A., Dent, A.J.S. and Green, M.F. (2005), "Comparison of confinement models for fiber-reinforced polymer-wrapped concrete", ACI Struct. J., 102(1), 62-72.
  5. Bournas, D.A. and Triantafillou, T.C. (2013), "Biaxial bending of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with externally applied reinforcement in combination with confinement", ACI Struct. J., 110(2), 193-204.
  6. Braga, F., Gigliotti, R. and Laterza, M. (2006), "Analytical stress-strain relationship for concrete confined by steel stirrups and/or FRP jackets", J. Struct. Eng., 132(9), 1402-1416. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2006)132:9(1402)
  7. Campione, G. (2006), "Influence of FRP wrapping techniques on the compressive behavior of concrete prisms", Cement Concrete Compos., 28(5), 497-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.01.002
  8. De Lorenzis, L. and Tepfers, R. (2003), "Comparative study of models on confinement of concrete cylinders with fiber-reinforced polymer composites", J. Compos. Constr., 7(3), 219-237. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2003)7:3(219)
  9. Demers, M. and Neale, K.W. (1999), "Confinement of reinforced with fibre-reinforced composite sheet - An experimental study", Can. J. Civ. Eng., 26(2), 226-241. https://doi.org/10.1139/l98-067
  10. Demir, C., Darilmaz, K. and Ilki, A. (2015), "Cyclic stress-Strain relationships of FRP confined concrete members", Arab. J. Sci. Eng., 40(2), 363-379. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-014-1517-5
  11. Eid, R., Roy, N. and Paultre, P. (2009), "Normal- and high-strength concrete circular elements wrapped with FRP composites", J. Compos. Constr., 13(2), 113-124. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2009)13:2(113)
  12. ACI Committee 440 (2008), Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures, American Concrete Institute, USA.
  13. Au, C. and Buyukozturk, O. (2005), "Effect of fiber orientation and ply mix on fiber reinforced polymerconfined concrete", J. Compos. Constr., 9(5), 397-407. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2005)9:5(397)
  14. Elsanadedy, H.M. (2002), "Seismic performance and analysis of ductile composite-jacketed reinforced concrete bridge columns", Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine, CA.
  15. Fam, A.Z. and Rizkalla, S.H. (2001), "Confinement model for axially loaded concrete confined by circular fiber-reinforced polymer tubes", ACI Struct. J., 98(4), 451-461.
  16. Ghosh, K.K. and Sheigh, S.A. (2007), "Seismic upgrade with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer of columns containing lap-spliced reinforcing bars", ACI Struct. J., 104(2), 227-236.
  17. Harajli, M.H. and Rteil, A.A. (2004), "Effect of confinement using fiber-reinforced polymer or fiberreinforced concrete on seismic performance of gravity load-designed columns", ACI Struct. J., 101(1), 47-56.
  18. Hu, H. and Seracino, R. (2013), "Analytical model for FRP-and-steel-confined circular concrete columns in compression", J. Compos. Constr., 18(3), A4013012. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000394
  19. Iacobucci, R.D., Sheigh, S.A. and Bayrak, O. (2003), "Retrofit of square concrete columns with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer for seismic resistance", ACI Struct. J., 100(6), 785-794.
  20. Ilki, A. and Kumbasar, N. (2002), "Behavior of damaged and undamaged concrete strengthened by carbon fiber composite sheets", Struct. Eng. Mech., 13(1), 75-90. https://doi.org/10.12989/sem.2002.13.1.075
  21. Ilki, A. and Kumbasar, N. (2003), "Compressive behaviour of carbon fibre composite jacketed concrete with circular and noncircular cross sections", J. Earthq. Eng., 7(3), 381-406. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632460309350455
  22. Ilki, A., Koc, V., Peker, O., Karamuk, E. and Kumbasar, N. (2004), "Strengthening of RC columns with inadequate transverse reinforcement", Proceedings of 2nd Int. Conf. on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Adelaide, Australia.
  23. Ilki, A., Peker, O., Karamuk, E. and Kumbasar, N. (2006), "External confinement of low strength brittle reinforced concrete short columns", Proceedings of ACI SP-238, International Symposium on Confined Concrete, Eds., Y. Xiao, S. Kunnath, and W. Yi, Farmington Hills, Mich.
  24. Jiang, T. and Teng, J.G. (2007), "Analysis-oriented stress-strain models for FRP-confined concrete", Eng. Struct., 29(11), 2968-2986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2007.01.010
  25. Karbhari, V.M. and Gao, Y. (1997), "Composite jacketed concrete under uniaxial compression-Verification of simple design equations", J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 9(4), 185-193. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(1997)9:4(185)
  26. Kim Y., Quinn K., Ghannoum W.M. and Jirsa O. (2014), "Strengthening of reinforced concrete T-Beams using anchored CFRP materials", ACI Struct. J., 111(5), 1027-1036.
  27. Koutas, L. and Triantafillou, T. (2013), "Use of anchors in shear strengthening of reinforced concrete TBeams with FRP", J. Compos. Constr., 17(1), 101-107. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000316
  28. Kupfer, H., Hilsdorf, H.K. and Rusch, H. (1969), "Behavior of concrete under biaxial stresses", ACI J. Proc., 66(8), 656-666.
  29. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G. (2002), "Strength models for fiber-reinforced plastic-confined concrete", J. Struct. Eng., 128(5), 612-623. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2002)128:5(612)
  30. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G. (2003a), "Design-oriented stress-strain model for FRP-confined concrete", Constr. Build. Mater., 17(6), 471-489. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-0618(03)00045-X
  31. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G. (2003b), "Design-oriented stress-strain model for FRP-confined concrete in rectangular columns", J. Reinforced Plast. Compos., 22(13), 1149-1186. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684403035429
  32. Lam, L. and Teng, J.G. (2009), "Stress-strain model for FRP-confined concrete under cyclic axial compression", Eng. Struct., 31(2), 308-321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2008.08.014
  33. Teng, J.G., Lin, G. and Yu, T. (2014), "Analysis-oriented stress-strain model for concrete under combined FRP-steel confinement", J. Compos. Contr., doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000549. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CC.1943-5614.0000549
  34. Lee, J.Y., Yi, C.K., Jeong, H.S., Kim, S.W. and Kim, J.K. (2010), "Compressive response of concrete confined with steel spirals and FRP composites", J. Compos. Mater., 44(4), 481-504. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998309347568
  35. Lin, H. and Liao, C. (2004), "Compressive strength of reinforced concrete column confined by composite material", Compos. Struct., 65(2), 239-250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2003.11.001
  36. Lin, G., Teng, J.G. and Lam, L. (2012), "Numerical simulation of FRP-jacketed RC columns under cyclic loading: Modeling of the strain penetration effect", Proceedings of 1st Int. Conf. on Performance-Based and Life-Cycle Structural Engineering (PLSE2012), Faculty of Construction and Environment & Research Institute for Sustainable Urban Development, Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hong Kong, China.
  37. Mandal, S., Hoskin, A. and Fam, A. (2005), "Influence of concrete strength on confinement effectiveness of fiber-reinforced polymer circular jackets", ACI Struct. J., 102(3), 383-392.
  38. Mander J.B., Priestley M.J.N. and Park R. (1988), "Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 114(8), 1804-1826. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1988)114:8(1804)
  39. Matthys, S., Toutanji, H., Audenaert, K. and Taerwe, L. (2005), "Axial load behavior of large-scale columns confined with fiber-reinforced polymer composites", ACI Struct. J., 102(2), 258-267.
  40. Megalooikonomou, K.G., Monti, G. and Santini, S. (2012), "Constitutive model for fiber-reinforced polymer-and tie-confined concrete", ACI Struct. J., 109(4), 569-578.
  41. Menegotto, M. and Pinto, P.E. (1973), "Method of analysis for cyclically loaded RC plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behaviour of elements under combined normal force and bending", Symposium on the Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well Defined Repeated Loads, Int. Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, Switzerland.
  42. Nanni, A. and Bradford, N.M. (1995), "FRP jacketed concrete under uniaxial compression", Constr. Build. Mater., 9(2), 115-124. https://doi.org/10.1016/0950-0618(95)00004-Y
  43. Realfonzo, R. and Napoli, A (2009), "Cyclic behavior of RC columns strengthened by FRP and steel devices", J. Struct. Eng., 135(10), 1164-1176. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000048
  44. NEHRP (1997), Recommended provisions for seismic regulations for new buildings and other structures, Report FEMA-303, Building Seismic Safety Council, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.
  45. Rocca, S., Galati, N. and Nanni, A. (2006), "Large-size reinforced concrete columns strengthened with carbon FRP: Experimental evaluation", Proceedings of 3rd Int. Conf. on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Miami, USA.
  46. Rochette, P. and Labossiere, P. (2000), "Axial testing of rectangular column models confined with composites", J. Compos. Constr., 4(3), 129-136. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0268(2000)4:3(129)
  47. Saafi, M., Toutanji, H. and Li, Z. (1999), "Behavior of concrete columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer tubes", ACI Mater. J., 96(4), 500-509.
  48. Samaan, M., Mirmiran, A. and Shahawy, M. (1998), "Model of concrete confined by fiber composites", J. Struct. Eng., 124(9), 1025-1031. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(1998)124:9(1025)
  49. SeismoStruct (2014), SeismoStruct: A computer program for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures.
  50. Shao, Y., Zhu, Z. and Mirmiran, A. (2006), "Cyclic modeling of FRP-confined concrete with improved ductility", Cement Concrete Compos., 28(10), 959-968. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.07.009
  51. Shehata, I.A.E.M., Carneiro, L.A.V. and Shehata, L.C.D. (2002), "Strength of short concrete columns confined with CFRP sheets", Mater. Struct., 35(245), 50-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02482090
  52. Teng, J.G. and Lam, L. (2004), "Behavior and modeling of fiber reinforced polymer-confined concrete", J. Struct. Eng., 130(11), 1713-1723. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:11(1713)
  53. Teng, J.G., Lu, J.Y., Lam, L. and Xiao, Q.G. (2010), "Numerical simulation of FRP-jacketed RC columns subjected to cyclic loading", Proceedings of 5th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering, Springer, Berlin.
  54. Toutanji, H.A. (1999), "Stress-strain characteristics of concrete columns externally confined with advanced fiber composite sheets", ACI Mater. J., 96(3), 397-404.
  55. Triantafillou, T.C. (1998), "Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using epoxy-bonded FRP composites", ACI Struct. J., 95(2), 107-115.
  56. TS500 (2001), Requirements for design and construction of reinforced concrete structures, Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara.
  57. Turkish Earthquake Code (2007), Specifications for the buildings to be constructed in earthquake hazardous areas, Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Ankara.
  58. Wang, Y.C. and Restrepo, J.I. (2001), "Investigation of concentrically loaded reinforced concrete columns confined with glass fiber-reinforced polymer jackets", ACI Struct. J., 98(3), 377-385.
  59. Wang, Z.Y., Wang, D.Y., Smith, S. T. and Lu, D.G. (2012), "Experimental testing and analytical modeling of CFRP-confined large circular RC columns subjected to cyclic axial compression", Eng. Struct., 40, 64-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2012.01.004
  60. Xiao, Y. and Wu, H. (2000), "Compressive behaviour of concrete confined by carbon fiber composite jackets", J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 12(2), 139-146. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2000)12:2(139)