Improvement of Bleaching Effect on the Color of Enamel Surface with TiO2 Catalysis Convergence Bleaching Agent

TiO2 광촉매 융합 미백제에 의한 치아미백 향상 효과에 대한 연구

  • Received : 2015.07.29
  • Accepted : 2015.10.20
  • Published : 2015.10.31


This in vitro study compared the effect of bleaching agent modified by the addition of $TiO_2$ catalyst converged bleaching agent. Nonvital teeth samples were assigned to four group(n=6) according to the bleaching agent: 10% carbamide peroxide(CP) bleaching agen, 10% CP with 10% $TiO_2$ catalyst, 20% CP bleaching agent and 20% CP with 20% $TiO_2$ catalyst. Changes in enamel color were evaluated on minutes 30, 60, 180, 300 and 420. It was found that 20% CP with 20% $TiO_2$ catalysis increased the whiteness and overall color value and showed significantly brightened. The teeth bleaching time was reduced with $TiO_2$ catalyst converged bleaching agent. This result will contribute to development of the teeth bleaching agent.


catalysis convergence bleaching agent;$TiO_2$ catalysis;carbamide peroxide;tooth discoloration;methylene blue


  1. Woo HS, Shim YS, "Effect of 15% carbamide peroxide agents with and without potassium nitrate and fluoride(PF) on the teeth color and surface microhardness of human enamel". J Korea Cont Assoc, Vol. 12, pp. 353-360, 2012.
  2. Haywood VB, Heymann HO, "Nightguard vital bleaching". Qintessence Int, Vol. 20, pp. 173-176, 1989.
  3. Bernardon JK, Ferrari P, Baratieri LN, Rauber GB, "Comparison of treatment time versus patient satisfaction in at-home and in-office tooth bleaching therapy". J Prosthet Dent. Sep 11. pii:S0022-3913, 2015.
  4. Nathoo SA, "The chemistry and mechanism of extrinsic and intrinsic discoloration". J Am Dent Assoc. Suppl, pp. 6S-10S, 1997.
  5. Dadoun MP, Bartlett DW, "Safety issues when using carbamide peroxide to bleach vital teeth". Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent, Vol. 11, pp. 9-13, 2003.
  6. Hubbezoglu I, Akaoglu B, Dogan A, et al., "Effect of bleaching on color change and refractive index of dental composite resins". Dent Master J, Vol. 27, pp. 187-195, 2005.
  7. Kaur G, Sanap AU, Aggarwal SD, Kumar T., "Comparative evaluation of two different remineralizing agents on the microhardness of bleached enamel surface: Results of an in vitro study". Indian J Dent Res. Mar-Apr, Vol. 26, Issue 2, pp. 176-179, 2015.
  8. Basting RT, AL Rodrigues Jr., MC Serra, "The effect of 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching material on microhardness of sound and demineralized enamel and dentin in situ". Oper Dent., Vol. 26, pp. 531-539, 2001.
  9. Basting RT et al., "Effect of a 10% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent on roughness and microhardness of packable composite resins". J Esthet Restor Dent, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 256-262, 2005.
  10. Jihyun Kwon, Tingting Zhu, Kyung Mi Son, Hee Chul Park, Hyeong-Cheol Yang, "Effect of hydrogen peroxide bleaching agents on human pulp cell", Kor J Dent Materials, Vol. 40, Special Issue, pp. 7-8, 2013.
  11. Wan Ky Park, Aromi Kang, Sung-Ae Son, Bock Hur, Yong Hoon Kwon, Jeong-Kil Park, "Effect of bleaching agents on the color change of different based composite resins", Kor J Dent Materials, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 121-127, 2013.
  12. Hye-Ran Kim, Tae-Yub Kwon, Young-Kyung Kim, "The Effect of Bleaching on the Microhardness of Tooth-Colored Restoratives" Kor J Dent Materials, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 287-294, 2011.
  13. Ulukapi H, Bengerli Y, Ulukapi I, "Effect of pre-and-post operative bleaching on marginal effect of leakage of amalgam and composite restorations". Quintessence Int, Vol. 34, pp. 503-508, 2003.
  14. de Freitas PM, Basting RT, Rodrigues JA, Serra MC, "Effects of two 10% peroxide carbamide bleaching gents on dentin microhardness at different time intervals". Quintessence Int, Vol. 15, pp. 142-152, 2002.
  15. Cenay S, Cehreli MC, "The effect of current bleaching agents on the color of light-polymerized composites in vitro". J Prosthet Dent Vol. 89, pp. 474-478, 2003.
  16. Yalcin F, Gurgan S., "Bleaching-induced color change in plastic filling materials". J Biomater Appl Vol. 19, pp. 187-195, 2005.
  17. Li Q, Yu H, Wang Y, "Color and surface analysis of carbamide peroxide bleaching effects on the dental restorative materials in situ". J Dent, Vol. 37, pp. 348-356, 2009.

Cited by

  1. A Gender and The Beauty Showed in Politician's Facial Appearance as an Element of Winning in the Election Process vol.14, pp.2, 2016,