Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

  • Wang, X.C. (College of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Northeast Agricultural University) ;
  • Zhang, H.J. (Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Wu, S.G. (Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Yue, H.Y. (Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Wang, J. (Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) ;
  • Li, Jie (College of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Northeast Agricultural University) ;
  • Qi, Guang-Hai (Key Laboratory of Feed Biotechnology of Ministry of Agriculture, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
  • Received : 2015.03.03
  • Accepted : 2015.06.08
  • Published : 2015.11.01


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A $6{\times}3$ factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness.


Plant Protein Ingredient;Internal Quality;Refrigeration;Chicken Egg


  1. Bai, K., H. Chen, X. H. Guo, S. Ge, and R. L. Huang. 2014. Effects of cottonseed oil on egg qualities and texture of boiled eggs. Heilongjiang Xumu Shouyi 2:80-83. (in Chinese)
  2. Biladeau, A. M. and K. M. Keener. 2009. The effects of edible coatings on chicken egg quality under refrigerated storage. Poult. Sci. 88:1266-1274.
  3. Brooks, J. and H. P. Hale. 1959. The mechanical properties of the thick white of the hen's egg. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 32:237-250.
  4. Caner, C. and O. Cansiz. 2008. Chitosan coating minimises eggshell breakage and improves egg quality. J. Sci. Food Agric. 88:56-61.
  5. De Reu, K., K. Grijspeerdt, W. Messens, M. Heyndrickx, M. Uyttendaele, J. Debevere, and L. Herman. 2006. Eggshell factors influencing eggshell penetration and whole egg contamination by different bacteria, including Salmonella enteritidis. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 112:253-260.
  6. Gilani, A., H. Kermanshahi, A. golian, and A. M. Tahmasbi. 2012. Alterations of egg yolk and albumen quality during cold storage when hens fed diets comprising cottonseed meal treated with sodium bentonite. Int. J. Appl. Anim. Sci. 1:74-79.
  7. Haugh, R. R. 1937. The Haugh unit for measuring egg quality. U.S. Egg Poult. Mag. 43:552-555.
  8. Hidalgo, A., M. Lucisano, E. M. Comelli, and C. Pompei. 1996. Evolution of chemical and physical yolk characteristics during the storage of shell eggs. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:1447-1452.
  9. Jin, Y. H., K. T. Lee, W. I. Lee, and Y. K. Han. 2011. Effects of storage temperature and time on the quality of eggs from laying hens at peak production. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 24:279-284.
  10. Jung, B., R. D. Mitchell, and A. B. Batal. 2012. Evaluation of the use of feeding distillers dried grains with solubles in combination with canola meal on broiler performance and carcass characteristics. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 21:776-787.
  11. Kato, A., K. Ogino, Y. Kuramoto, and K. Kobayashi. 1979. Degradation of the O-glycosidically linked carbohydrate units of ovomucin during egg white thinning. J. Food Sci. 44:1341-1344.
  12. Keener, K. M., J. D. LaCrosse, and J. K. Babson. 2001. Chemical method for determination of carbon dioxide content in egg yolk and egg albumen. Poult. Sci. 80:983-987.
  13. Keener, K. M., J. D. LaCrosse, P. A. Curtis, K. E. Anderson, and B. E. Farkas. 2000. The influence of rapid air cooling and carbon dioxided cooling and subsequent storage in air and carbon dioxide on shell egg quality. Poult. Sci. 79:1067-1071.
  14. Kemps, B. J., B. De Ketelaere, F. R. Bamelis, K. Mertens, E. M. Decuypere, J. G. De Baerdemaeker, and F. Schwagele. 2007. Albumen freshness assessment by combining visible near-infrared transmission and low-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Poult. Sci. 86:752-759.
  15. Khajali, F. and B. A. Slominski. 2012. Factors that affect the nutritive value of canola meal for poultry. Poult. Sci. 91:2564-2575.
  16. Kim, S. H., D. K. Youn, H. K. No, S. W. Choi, and W. Prinyawiwatkul. 2009. Effects of chitosan coating and storage position on quality and shelf life of eggs. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 44:1351-1359.
  17. Li, F., L. M. Zhang, X. H. Wu, C. Y. Li, X. J. Yang, Y. Dong, A. Lemme, J. C. Han, and J. H. Yao. 2013. Effects of metabolizable energy and balanced protein on egg production, quality, and components of Lohmann Brown laying hens. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 22:36-46.
  18. Martens, S. D., T. T. Tiemann, J. Bindelle, M. Peters, and C. E. Lascano. 2012. Alternative plant protein sources for pigs and chickens in the tropics.nutritional value and constraints: a review. J. Agric. Rural Dev. Trop. Subtrop. 113:101-123.
  19. National Research Council. 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  20. Nongtaodum, S., A. Jangchud, K. Jangchud, P. Dhamvithee, H. K. No, and W. Prinyawiwatkul. 2013. Oil coating affects internal quality and sensory acceptance of selected attributes of raw eggs during storage. J. Food Sci. 78:S329-S335.
  21. Omana, D. A., J. Wang, and J. Wu. 2010. Ovomucin.a glycoprotein with promising potential. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 21:455-463.
  22. Rao, S. V. R., V. Ravindran, T. Srilatha, A. K. Panda, and M. V. L. N. Raju. 2011. Effect of dietary concentrations of energy, crude protein, lysine, and methionine on the performance of White Leghorn layers in the tropics. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 20:528-541.
  23. Shafer, D. J., J. B. Carey, J. F. Prochaska, and A. R. Sams. 1998. Dietary methionine intake effects on egg component yield, composition, functionality, and texture profile analysis. Poult. Sci. 77:1056-1062.
  24. Silversides, F. G. and T. A. Scott. 2001. Effect of storage and layer age on quality of eggs from two lines of hens. Poult. Sci. 80:1240-1245.
  25. Stadelman, W. J. 1995. Quality identi.cation of shell eggs. In: Egg Science and Technology, 4th Ed. (Eds. W. J. Stadelman, and O. J. Cotterill). Food Products Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 37-65.
  26. Tarasewicz, Z., D. Szczerbinska, M. Ligocki, M. Wiercinska, D. Majewska, and K. Romaniszyn. 2006. The effect of differentiated dietary protein level on the performance of breeder quails. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep. 24:207-216.
  27. Waimaleongora-Ek, P., K. M. Garcia, H. K. No, W. Prinyawiwatkul, and D. R. Ingram. 2009. Selected quality and shelf life of eggs coated with mineral oil with different viscosities. J. Food Sci. 74:S423-S429.
  28. Wang, J., D. A. Omana, and J. Wu. 2012. Effect of shell eggs storage on ovomucin extraction. Food Bioprocess Tech. 5:2280-2284.
  29. Wardy, W., D. D. Torrico, J. A. H. Corredor, H. K. No, X. Zhang, Z. Xu, and W. Prinyawiwatkul. 2013. Soybean oil.chitosan emulsion affects internal quality and of eggs stored at 25 and $4^{\circ}C$. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 48:1148-1156.
  30. Woyengo, T. A., E. Kiarie, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2010. Metabolizable energy and standardized ileal digestible amino acid contents of expeller-extracted canola meal fed to broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 89:1182-1189.
  31. Yang, J. S., S. Y. Xia, Y. Fang, and K. Lin. 2011. Application of TPA in Portunus pelagicus and different freeze storage temperature on its quality. Food Sci. Technol. 36:129-135. (in Chinese).

Cited by

  1. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal vol.12, pp.8, 2017,
  2. Ulvan extracted from green seaweeds as new natural additives in diets for laying hens vol.30, pp.3, 2018,