Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

  • Lee, Gang Il (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kim, Kwang-Sik (Department of Animal Resources Development, Swine Science Division, Rural Development Administration) ;
  • Kim, Jong Hyuk (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University) ;
  • Kil, Dong Yong (Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University)
  • Received : 2015.03.14
  • Accepted : 2015.06.09
  • Published : 2015.11.01


The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated $5{\times}5$ Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], $39.2{\pm}2.2kg$). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire; initial BW, $47.7{\pm}3.5kg$) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE systems. Linear regression indicated that predictability of daily NE intake from the BW of pigs was very low for both French ($R^2$, 0.366) and Dutch CVB ($R^2$, 0.374) NE systems. In conclusion, increasing NE concentrations in diets increase BW, ADG, G:F, and NE intake per BW gain of early finishing gilts. The BW of early finishing gilts is not a good sole variable for the prediction of daily NE intake.


Dutch CVB Net Energy System;Early Finishing Gilt;French Net Energy System;Growth Performance;Net Energy Concentration in Diets


Supported by : Rural Development Administration


  1. AOAC. 2007. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.
  2. Beaulieu, A. D., N. H. Williams, and J. F. Patience. 2009. Response to dietary digestible energy concentration in growing pigs fed cereal grain-based diets. J. Anim. Sci. 87:965-976.
  3. Bertin, C., X. Rouau, and J. F. Thibault. 1988. Structure and properties of sugar beet fibres. J. Sci. Food Agric. 44:15-29.
  4. BIPEA. 1976. Recueil des Methodes d'Analyses des Communautes Europeennes. Bureau Interprofessionnel d'Etudes Analytiques, Gennevilliers, France. pp. 105-111.
  5. Blok, M. C. 2006. Development of a new net energy formula by CVB, using the database of INRA. In: Proceedings of Net Energy Systems for Growing and Fattening Pigs, Vejle, Denmark. pp. 40-57.
  6. Chadd, S. A. and D. J. A. Cole. 1999. The performance response of growing and finishing pigs fed differing proportions oat feed as a dietary fibre source. In: Proceedings of EAAP Annual Meeting, Zurich, Switzerland.
  7. Cole, D. J. A., J. E. Duckworth, and W. Holmes. 1967. Factors affecting voluntary feed intake in pigs: 1. The effect of digestible energy content of the diet on the intake of castrated male pigs housed in holding pens and in metabolism crates. Anim. Prod. 9:141-148.
  8. De la Llata, M., S. S. Dritz, M. D. Tokach, R. D. Goddband, J. L. Nelssen, and T. M. Loughin. 2001. Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growingfinishing pigs reared in a commercial environment. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2643-2650.
  9. EEC. 1999. Determination of starch. Official J. Eur. Communities L209:25-27.
  10. ISO. 2004. Animal feeding stuffs: Enzymatic determination of total starch content. (ISO 15914:2004). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
  11. Kil, D. Y., F. Ji, L. L. Stewart, R. B. Hinson, A. D. Beaulieu, G. L. Allee, J. F. Patience, J. E. Pettigrew, and H. H. Stein. 2013a. Effects of dietary soybean oil on pig growth performance, retention of protein, lipids, and energy, and the net energy of corn in diets fed to growing or finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 91:3283-3290.
  12. Kil, D. Y., B. G. Kim, and H. H. Stein. 2013b. Feed energy evaluation for growing pigs. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1205-1217.
  13. Adeola, O. 2001. Digestion and balance techniques in pigs. In: Swine Nutrition (Eds. A. J. Lewis and L. L. Southern). CRC Press, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 903-916.
  14. Anguita, M., J. Gasa, M. Nofrarias, S. M. Martin-Orue, and J. F. Perez. 2007. Effect of coarse ground corn, sugar beet pulp and wheat bran on the voluntary intake and physicochemical characteristics of digesta of growing pigs. Livest. Sci. 107:182-191.
  15. Kim, J. H., S. Seo, C. H. Kim, J. W. Kim, B. B. Lee, G. I. Lee, H. S. Shin, M. C. Kim, and D. Y. Kil. 2013. Effect of dietary supplementation of crude glycerol or tallow on intestinal transit time and utilization of energy and nutrients in diets fed to broiler chickens. Livest. Sci. 154:165-168.
  16. Kong, C. and O. Adeola. 2014. Evaluation of amino acid and energy utilization in feedstuff for swine and poultry diets. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:917-925.
  17. Le Goff, G. and J. Noblet. 2001. Comparative total tract digestibility of dietary energy and nutrients in growing pigs and adult sows. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2418-2427.
  18. Noblet, J. and J. van Milgen. 2004. Energy value of pig feeds:Effect of pig body weight and energy evaluation system. J. Anim. Sci. 82(E. Suppl.):E229-E238.
  19. Noblet, J. and Y. Henry. 1993. Energy evaluation systems for pig diets: a review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 36:121-141.
  20. Noblet, J., H. Fortune, X. S. Shi, and S. Dubois. 1994. Prediction of net energy value of feeds for growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 72:344-354.
  21. NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Rev. Ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  22. NRC. 2012. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 11th Rev. Ed. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  23. Oliveira, G. C., I. Moreira, A. L. Fraga, M. Kutschenko, and I. M. Sartori. 2005. Metabolizable energy requirement for starting barrow pigs (15 to 30 kg) fed on the ideal protein concept based diets. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 48:729-737.
  24. Oresanya, T. F., A. D. Beaulieu, and J. F. Patience. 2008. Investigations of energy metabolism in weanling barrows: The interaction of dietary energy concentration and daily feed (energy) intake. J. Anim. Sci. 86:348-363.
  25. Quiniou, N. and J. Noblet. 2012. Effect of the dietary net energy concentration on feed intake and performance of growingfinishing pigs housed individually. J. Anim. Sci. 90:4362-4372.
  26. Rijnen, M. M. J. A., J. Doorenbos, J. J. Mallo, and L. A. den Hartog. 2004. The application of the net energy system for swine. In: Proceedings of Western Nutrition Conference, Saskatoon, SK, Canada. pp. 151-168.
  27. Sauvant, D., J. M. Perez, and G. Tran. 2004. Table de Composition et de Valeur Nutritive des Matieres Premieres Destinees aux Animaux d'Elevage. INRA, Paris, France.
  28. Smith, J. W., M. D. Tokach, P. R. O'Quinn, J. L. Nelssen, and R. D. Goodband. 1999. Effects of dietary energy density and lysine: calorie ratio on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3007-3015.
  29. Valaja, J. and H. Siljander-Rasi. 2001. Dietary fat supplementation affects apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and digesta passage rate of rapeseed meal-based diets. In: Digestive Physiology of Pigs (Eds. J. E. Lindberg and B. Ogle). CABI Publishing, New York, NY, USA. pp. 175-177.
  30. Yin, Y. L., J. D. G. McEvoy, H. Schulze, U. Henning, W. B. Souffrant, and K. J. McCracken. 2000. Apparent digestibility (ileal and overall) of nutrients and endogenous nitrogen losses in growing pigs fed wheat (var. Soissons) or its by-products without or with xylanase supplementation. Livest. Prod. Sci. 62:119-132.

Cited by

  1. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts vol.30, pp.9, 2017,