Effects of Rhizosphere Microorganisms and Wood Vinegar Mixtures on Rice Growth and Soil Properties

  • Jeong, Kang Wook (School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Kim, Bo Sung (School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Ultra, Venecio U. Jr. (University of Eastern Philippines) ;
  • Chul, Sang (School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University)
  • Received : 2015.08.06
  • Accepted : 2015.08.25
  • Published : 2015.09.30


Environment-friendly growth enhancers for rice are being promoted to reverse the negative impact of intensive chemical-based and conventional rice farming on yield sustainability and environmental problems. Several rhizosphere microorganisms and pyroligneous acids (PA) had demonstrated beneficial influence on growth, yield and grain quality of rice. Since most of the previous study had evaluated the effect of PGPR and PA on paddy rice singly, the effect of combined application of these on the growth and yield of paddy rice and on some soil chemical properties were determined. A four factorial pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of PGPR, PA in combination with fertilizers and on different soil types. There were 54 treatment combinations including the control with three replications under complete randomized design. Plant growth parameters were evaluated using standard procedures during tillering and heading stages. Rice yield and some soil chemical properties were determined at harvest. Results showed that inoculation of Bacillus licheniformis and Fusarium fujikuroi enhanced plant growth by increasing the plant height which could be ascribe to its ability to promote IAA and GA production in plants. Inoculation of Rhizobium phaseoli enhanced chlorophyll content indicative to its ability to improve the N nutrition. However, these plant growth benefits during the vegetative stage were override by the fertilizer application effect especially during the maturity stage and grain yield. High fertilization rates on coarse-textured soil without nutrient loss resulted to high available nutrients and consequently high yield. Wood vinegar application however improved nutrient availability in soil which could be beneficial for improving soil quality. Further evaluation is necessary to fully assess the potential benefits that could be derived from inoculation of these organisms and wood vinegar application in different soil environment especially under different field conditions.



Grant : 신 4-H 미래 농생명산업 창의인재양성사업단


  1. Adamiec, A. 2015. The effect of plant growth regulators on strains of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld.[Gibberella fujikuroi (Saw.) Wr.]. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae, 35(4) : 487-510.
  2. Ashrafuzzaman, M., F. A. Hossen, M. R. Ismail, A. Hoque, M. Z. Islam, S. M. Shahidullah, and S. Meon. 2009. Efficiency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of rice growth. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(7).
  3. Biswas, J. C., J. K. Ladha, and F. B. Dazzo. 2000. Rhizobia inoculation improves nutrient uptake and growth of lowland rice.
  4. Biswas, J. C., J. K. Ladha, F. B. Dazzo, Y. G. Yanni, and B. G. Rolfe. 2000. Rhizobial inoculation influences seedling vigor and yield of rice. Agronomy Journal, 92(5) : 880-886.
  5. Gutierrez-Manero, F. J., B. Ramos-Solano, A. Probanza, J. Mehouachi, F. Tadeo, and M. Talon. 2001. The plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis produce high amounts of physiologically active gibberellins. Physiologia Plantarum, 111(2) : 206-211.
  6. Haiying, W., Y. Guoting, and Z. Dan. 2004. Research situation and comprehensive utilization of wood vinegar. Journal of Northeast Forestry University-Chinese Edition. 32 : 55-57.
  7. Hayat, R., S. Ali, U. Amara, R. Khalid, and I. Ahmed. 2010. Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review. Annals of Microbiology, 60(4) : 579-598.
  8. Jianming, Z. 2003. Effect of the Solution of Wood Vinegar on Yield and Nitrogen-utilization of Rice. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 31(4) : 542-543.
  9. Kang, M. Y., K. H. Heo, J. H. Kim, S. S. Cho, P. D. Seo, C. Rico and S. C. Lee. 2012. Effects of carbonized rice hull and wood charcoal mixed with pyroligneous acid on the yield, and antioxidant and nutritional quality of rice. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 36(1) : 45-53.
  10. Kumar, U. and T. K. Dangar. 2013. Functional Role of Plant Growth Promoting Endo-and Rhizobacteria in Major Cereal Crops.
  11. Mia, M. B., Z. H. Shamsuddin, and M. Mahmood. 2014. Effects of rhizobia and plant growth promoting bacteria inoculation on germination and seedling vigor of lowland rice. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(16) : 3758-3765.
  12. Page, A. L. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America.
  13. Philip-Hollingsworth, S., G. Orgambide, F. de Bruijn, J. Stoltzfus, and D. Buckley. 2013. Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and rice roots and assessment of its potential to promote rice growth. In Opportunities for Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Rice and Other Non-Legumes: Papers presented at the Second Working Group Meeting of the Frontier Project on Nitrogen Fixation in Rice held at the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan, 13-15 October 1996 (Vol. 75, pp. 99-114). Springer Science & Business Media.
  14. Siddikee, M. A., B. R. Glick, P. S. Chauhan, W. Jong Yim, and T. Sa. 2011. Enhancement of growth and salt tolerance of red pepper seedlings (Capsicum annuum L.) by regulating stress ethylene synthesis with halotolerant bacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49(4) : 427-434.
  15. Steiner, C., K. C. Das, M. Garcia, B. Forster, and W. Zech. 2008. Charcoal and smoke extract stimulate the soil microbial community in a highly weathered xanthic Ferralsol. Pedobiologia, 51(5) : 359-366.
  16. Tsuzuki, E., T. Morimitsu, and T. Matsui. 2000. Effect of chemical compounds in pyroligneous acid on root growth in rice plant. Report of the Kyushu Branch of the Crop Science Society of Japan, (66) : 15-16.
  17. Vessey, J. 2003. "Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as biofertilizers." Plant and soil 255.2 : 571-586.
  18. Waqas, M., A. L. Khan, M. Kamran, M. Hamayun, S. M. Kang, Y. H. Kim, and I. J. Lee. 2012. Endophytic fungi produce gibberellins and indoleacetic acid and promotes host-plant growth during stress. Molecules, 17(9) : 10754-10773.
  19. Zulkarami, B., M. Ashrafuzzaman, M. O. Husni, and M. R. Ismail. 2011. Effect of pyroligneous acid on growth, yield and quality improvement of rockmelon in soilless culture.
  20. 続栄治, 脇山恭行, 江藤博六, & 半田弘. 1989. Effect of pyroligneous acid and mixture of charcoal with pyroligneous acid on the growth and yield of rice plant.日本作物學會紀事, 58(4) : 592-597.

Cited by

  1. Effect of pyroligneous acids on urease inhibition vol.60, pp.2, 2017,