- Volume 9 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Implications of yield penetration on confinement requirements of r.c. wall elements
- Tastani, Souzana P. (Department of Civil Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace (DUTh)) ;
- Pantazopoulou, Stavroula J. (Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus)
- Received : 2014.05.25
- Accepted : 2015.04.27
- Published : 2015.10.25
Seismic-design procedures for walls require that the confinement in the critical (plastic hinge) regions should extend over a length in the compression zone of the cross section at the wall base where concrete strains in the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) exceed the limit of 0.0035. In a performance-based framework, confinement is linked to required curvature ductility so that the drift demand at the performance point of the structure for the design earthquake may be met. However, performance of flexural walls in the recent earthquakes in Chile (2010) and Christchurch (2011) indicates that the actual compression strains in the critical regions of many structural walls were higher than estimated, being responsible for several of the reported failures by toe crushing. In this study, the method of estimating the confined region and magnitude of compression strain demands in slender walls are revisited. The objective is to account for a newly identified kinematic interaction between the normal strains that arise in the compression zone, and the lumped rotations that occur at the other end of the wall base due to penetration of bar tension yielding into the supporting anchorage. Design charts estimating the amount of yield penetration in terms of the resulting lumped rotation at the wall base are used to quantify the increased demands for compression strain in the critical section. The estimated strain increase may exceed by more than 30% the base value estimated from the existing design expressions, which explains the frequently reported occurrence of toe crushing even in well confined slender walls under high drift demands. Example cases are included in the presentation to illustrate the behavioral parametric trends and implications in seismic design of walls.
- Aaleti, S. (2009), "Behavior of rectangular concrete walls subjected to simulated seismic loading", Ph.D. thesis, Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.
- Aaleti, S., Brueggen, B., Johnson, B., French, C. and Sritharan, S. (2013), "Cyclic response of reinforced concrete walls with different anchorage details: experimental investigation", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 139(7), 1181-1191. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000732
- ACI 318 (2011), Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318M-11) and Commentary, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, U.S.A. ISBN 978-0-87031-745-3.
- Beyer, K., Dazio, A. and Priestley, N.M.J. (2011), "Shear deformations of slender reinforced concrete walls under seismic loading", ACI Struct. J., 108(2), 167-177.
- Birely, A., Lehman, D., Lowes, L., Kuchma, D., Hart, C. and Marley, K. (2010), "Investigation of the seismic response of planar concrete walls", 9th U.S. National Conference and 10th Canadian Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Ontario, Canada.
- Birely, A., Lehman, D., Lowes, L., Kuchma, .D, Hart, C. and Marley, K. (2008), "Investigation of the seismic behavior and analysis of reinforced concrete structural walls", 14th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Beijing, China.
- Dazio, A., Beyer, K. and Bachmann, H. (2009), "Quasi-static cyclic tests and plastic hinge analysis of RC structural walls", Eng. Struct., 31(7), 1556-1571. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2009.02.018
- EC2 (2004), BS EN 1992-1-1: Design of concrete structures-General rules and rules for buildings, European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels.
- EC8-I (2004), Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules seismic actions and rules for buildings, European Committee for Standardization (CEN), Brussels.
- Elnashai, A., Pilakoutas, K. and Ambraseys, N. (1990), ''Experimental behaviour of reinforced concrete walls under earthquake loading", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 19(3), 389-407. https://doi.org/10.1002/eqe.4290190308
- Fardis, M.N., Schetakis, A. and Strepelias, E. (2013), "RC buildings retrofitted by converting frame bays into RC walls", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 11(5), 1541-1561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-013-9435-6
- fib CEB-FIP (2010), fib Model Code 2010 - Final draft, Volume 1. Bulletin No. 65, International Federation for Structural Concrete, Lausanne, Switzerland.
- Hannewald, P., Beyer, K. and Mihaylov, B. (2012), "Performance based assessment of existing bridges with wall type piers and structural deficiencies", presented in the ACI341 Session: "Forming a Framework for Performance-based Seismic Design of Concrete Bridges", ACI Fall Convention, Toronto, Canada.
- Hiraishi, H. (1984), "Evaluation of shear and flexural deformations of flexural type shear walls", Bull. NZ. Soc. Earthq. Eng., 17(2), 135-44.
- Jiang, H., Wang, B. and Lu, X. (2013), "Experimental study on damage behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls subjected to cyclic loads", J. Earthq. Eng., 17(7), 958-971. https://doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2013.791895
- Johnson, B. (2010), "Anchorage detailing effects on lateral deformation components of R/C shear walls", M.Sc. Thesis, University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, 353 pp.
- Massone, L.M. and Wallace, J.W. (2004), "Load-deformation responses of slender reinforced concrete walls", ACI Struct. J., 101(1), 103-113.
- Oesterle, R.G., Aristizabal-Ochoa, J.D., Fiorato, A.E., Russell, H.G. and Corley, W.G. (1979), "Earthquake resistant structural walls - tests of isolated walls: Phase II", Report to National Science Foundation. Skokie (IL, USA): PCA Construction Technology Laboratories.
- Oesterle, R.G., Fiorato, A.E., Johal, L.S., Carpenter, J.E., Russell, H.G. and Corley, W.G. (1976), "Earthquake resistant structural walls - tests of isolated walls", Report to National Science Foundation. Skokie (IL, USA): PCA Construction Technology Laboratories.
- Priestley, M., Seible, F. and Calvi, M. (1996), Seismic Design and Retrofit of Bridges, Wiley, New York, USA.
- Syntzirma, D., Pantazopoulou, S. and Aschheim, M. (2010), "Load-history effects on deformation capacity of flexural members limited by bar buckling", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 136(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000088
- Tastani, S.P. and Pantazopoulou, S.J. (2013a), "Yield penetration in seismically loaded anchorages: effects on member deformation capacity", Earthq. Struct., 5(5), 527-552. https://doi.org/10.12989/eas.2013.5.5.527
- Tastani, S.P. and Pantazopoulou, S.J. (2013b), "Reinforcement-concrete bond: state determination along the development length", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 139(9), 1567-1581. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000725
- Thomsen, J.H. and Wallace, J.W. (2004), "Displacement-based design of slender rc structural walls - experimental verification", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 130(4), 618-630. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9445(2004)130:4(618)
- Thomsen, J.H. and Wallace, J.W. (1995), "Displacement-based design of rc structural walls: an experimental investigation of walls with rectangular and T-shaped cross-sections", Report. No CU/CEE-95/06 to National Science Foundation, Dep. of Civil Engineering, Clarkson University.
- Wallace, J.W., Massone, L.M., Bonelli, P., Dragovich, J., Lagos, R., Luders, C. and Moehle, J. (2012), "Damage and implications for seismic design of RC structural wall buildings", Earthq. Spectra, 28(1), 281-299. https://doi.org/10.1193/1.4000047
- Wallace, J.W. and Moehle, J. (2012) "Behavior and design of structural walls - Lessons from recent laboratory tests and earthquakes", International Symposium on Engineering Lessons Learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Tokyo, Japan.
- Mechanics Model for Simulating RC Hinges under Reversed Cyclic Loading vol.9, pp.12, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9040305
- Effect of structural features and loading parameters on bond in reinforced concrete under repeated load vol.18, pp.6, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/suco.201600170
- Evaluation of load–deformation behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls with continuous or lap-spliced bars in plastic hinge zone pp.2048-4011, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1177/1369433218798717