Numerical simulation of the experimental results of a RC frame retrofitted with RC Infill walls

  • Kyriakides, Nicholas (Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics) ;
  • Chrysostomou, Christis Z. (Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics) ;
  • Kotronis, Panagiotis (LUNAM Universite, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS UMR 6183 GeM (Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique)) ;
  • Georgiou, Elpida (Cyprus University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering and Geomatics) ;
  • Roussis, Panayiotis (University of Cyprus)
  • Received : 2014.12.18
  • Accepted : 2015.07.10
  • Published : 2015.10.25


The effectiveness of seismic retrofitting of RC-frame buildings by converting selected bays into new walls through infilling with RC walls was studied experimentally using a full-scale four-storey model tested with the pseudo-dynamic (PsD) method. The frames were designed and detailed for gravity loads only using different connection details between the walls and the bounding frame. In order to simulate the experimental response, two numerical models were formulated differing at the level of modelling. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the capabilities of these models to simulate the experimental nonlinear behaviour of the tested RC building strengthened with RC infill walls and comment on their effectiveness. The comparison between the capacity, in terms of peak ground acceleration, of the strengthened frame and the one of the bare frame, which was obtained numerically, has shown a five-fold increase.


  1. Antonopoulos, T.A. and Anagnostopoulos, S.A. (2012), "Seismic evaluation and upgrading of RC buildings with weak open ground stories", Earthq. Struct., 3(3-4), 611-628.
  2. BS8110 (1983), Structural use of concrete, Code of Practice for Design and Construction, Part 1, The Council for Codes of Practice, British Standard Institution, London.
  3. BSI (1972), CP110-The structural use of concrete, Part 1, The Council for Codes of Practice, British Standards Institution, London.
  4. Cast3M, Site web of the finite element code Cast3M,
  5. CEN (2004), Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures-Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings (EN-1992-1-1), Comite Europeen De Normalisation.
  6. CEN (2004b), Eurocode 8: Design provisions of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 1: general rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings (EN1998-1), CEN, Brussels
  7. Chrysostomou, C.Z., Poljansek, M., Kyriakides, N., Molina, J. and Taucer, F. (2013), "Pseudo-dynamic tests on a full-scale 4-storey RC frame seismically retrofitted with RC infilling", Struct. Eng. Int. J. IABSE, 23(2), 159-166.
  8. Chrysostomou, C.Z., Kyriakides, N.C., Poljansek, M., Molina, J. and Taucer, F. (2014), Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Structures, Chapter 17: RC Infilling of existing RC structures for seismic retrofitting, Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering 26, Springer International Publishing, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-00458-7_17.
  9. Fardis, M.N., Schetakis, A. and Strepelias, E. (2013), "RC buildings retrofitted by converting frame bays into RC walls", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 11(5), 1541-1561.
  10. Faria, R., Oliver, J. and Cervera, M. (1998), "A strain-based plastic viscous-damage model for massive concrete structures", Int. J. Solid. Struct., 35(14), 1533-1558.
  11. Garcia, R., Pilakoutas, K., Hajirasouliha, I., Guadagnini, M., Kyriakides, N. and Ciupala, A. (2015), "Seismic retrofitting of RC buildings using CFRP and post-tensioned metal straps: shake table tests", Bull. Earthq. Eng., doi: 10.1007/s10518-015-9800-8.
  12. Hemant, K.B., Durgesh, R.C. and Sudhir, J.K. (2009), "Effectiveness of some strengthening options for masonry infilled RC frames with open first story", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 135(8), 925-937.
  13. KANEPE (2012), Code for Intervention in Reinforced Concrete Buildings, Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (OASP), Athens.
  14. Kyriakides, N., Ahmad, S., Pilakoutas, K., Neocleous, K. and Chrysostomou, C. (2014), "A probabilistic analytical seismic vulnerability assessment framework for low strength structures of developing countries", Earthq. Struct., 6(6), 665-687, doi:10.12989/eas.2014.6.6.665.
  15. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N. and Park, R. (1984), "Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 114(3), 1804-1826.
  16. Menegoto, M. and Pinto, P. (1973), "Method of analysis of cyclically loaded reinforced concrete plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behaviour of elements under combined normal force and bending", IABSE Symposium on Resistance and Ultimate Deformability of Structures Acted on by Well-Defined Repeated Loads, final report, Lisbon.
  17. Millard, A. (1993), Castem 2000 User Manual, Technical report No. Rapport CEA-LAMBS No 93/007, Commissariat Francais Energie Atomique, Saclay, France.
  18. Misir, I. (2014), "Potential use of locked brick infill walls to decrease soft-story formation in Frame buildings", J Perform. Constr. Facil.,
  19. Molina, F.J., Magonette, G., Pegon, P. and Zapico, B. (2011), "Monitoring damping in pseudo-dynamic tests", J. Earthq. Eng., 15(6), 877-900.
  20. Poljansek, M., Taucer, F., Molina, J., Chrysostomou, C.Z., Kyriakides, N., Onoufriou, T., Roussis, P., Kotronis P., Panagiotakos, T. and Kosmopoulos, A. (2014), Seismic Retrofitting of RC Frames with RC Infilling (SERFIN Project), JRC Scientific and Policy Report, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, doi:10.2788/630.
  21. SAP2000 (2010), Computers and Structures, v.14.2.3
  22. Takeda, T., Sozen, M. and Nielsen, N. (1970), "Reinforced concrete response to simulated earthquakes", J. Struct. Div., ASCE, 96(12), 2557-2573.