- Volume 48 Issue 4
DOI QR Code
Evaluation on Soil Characterization in Paddy Treated with Different Green Manure Crops and Tillage Method by Ordination Technique
- Kim, Kwang Seop (Crop Environment Division, NICS, RDA) ;
- Park, Ki Do (Crop Environment Division, NICS, RDA) ;
- Kim, Suk-Jin (Crop Environment Division, NICS, RDA) ;
- Choi, Jong-Seo (Crop Environment Division, NICS, RDA) ;
- Lee, Yong Bok (Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
- Kim, Min-Tae (Crop Environment Division, NICS, RDA)
- Received : 2015.06.22
- Accepted : 2015.08.17
- Published : 2015.08.31
Ordination has been recognized useful method to analyze the effects of multiple environmental factors on dozens of species in vegetation ecology because of summarizing community data by producing a low-dimensional graphics. Main objective of this study was the application of ordination method, especially principal components analysis (PCA), to analyze the soil characterization on paddy treated by different green manure crops and tillage methods. Treatments included the three tillage treatments and two green manure crops as the following; (i) moldrotary + rotary tillage without green manure crop (Con), with (ii) hairy vetch (ConHv), and (iii) hairy vetch + green barely (ConHvGb), (iv) rotary tillage without green manure crop (Rot), with (v) hairy vetch (RotHv), and (vi) hairy vetch + green barly (RotHvGb), and (vii) no-tillage (Notill). Vectorial distance result from PCA of soil properties including physical, chemical, and microbial properties showed the two main difference. Firstly, soil properties among plots without green manure were strongly affected by tillage strength [Vectorial distance: Con-Notil (5.88) > Rot-Notill (4.58)] at PC1 (35.0%) axis. But it was difficult to find the fixed trend among plots when green manure crop was added in plot. Nevertheless, two groups were separated by adding green manure crop at PC2 (29.2%) axis. These results show that PCA ordination methods could be used the research for change of soil characterization.
Ordination;Principal components analysis;Green manure crop;Tillage;Paddy
Grant : Cooperative Research Program for Agricultural Science & Technology Development
Supported by : Rural Development Administration
- Abdi, H. and L.J. Willams. 2010. Principal component analysis. WIREs Computational Statistics 2:433-459. https://doi.org/10.1002/wics.101
- Ali, M. 1999. Evaluation of green manure technology in tropical lowland rice systems. Field Crops Res. 61:61-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00149-X
- Astier, M., J.M. Maass, J.D. Etchevers-Barra, J.J. Pena, F. de Leon Gonzalez. 2006. Short-term green manure and tillage management effects on maize yield and soil quality in an Andisol. Soil Till. Res. 88: 153-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2005.05.003
- Austin, M.P. 1985. Continuum concept, ordination methods, and niche theory. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 39-61. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.16.110185.000351
- Beare, M.H., P.F. Hendrix, and D.C. Coleman. 1994. Waterstable aggregates and organic matter fractions in conventional and no-till soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58:777-786. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800030020x
- Becker, M., J.K. Ladha, and M. Ali. 1995. Green manure technology: potential, usage, and limitation. A case study for lowland rice. Plant Soil 174:181-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00032246
- Bossio, D., and K.M. Scow, 1995. Impact of carbon and flooding on the metabolic deversity of microbial communities in soils. Appl. Environ. Microb. 61: 4043-4050.
- Bossio, D., and K.M. Scow, 1998. Impact of carbon and flooding on soil microbial communities: Phosspholipid fatty acid profiles and substrate utilization patterns. Microb. Ecol. 35: 265-278. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002489900082
- Daquiado, A.R., T.Y. Kim, and Y.B. Lee. 2013. Microbial community structure of paddy soil under long-term fertilizer treatment using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 46: 474-481. https://doi.org/10.7745/KJSSF.2013.46.6.474
- Eo, Jinu, J.-M. Park, and Kee-Choon Park. 2015. Effects of cover crops on soil chemical properties and biota in a pear orchard. Koran J. Soil Sci. Fert. 48: 15-21.
- Frostegard, A., and E. Baath. 1996. The use of phopholipid fatty acid analysis to estimate bacterial and fungal biomass in soil. Biol. Fert. Soils 22: 59-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00384433
- Frostegard, A., A. Tunlid, and E. Baath. 1991. Microbial biomass measured as a total lipid phosphate in soils of different organic content. J. Microbiol. Meth. 14: 151-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-7012(91)90018-L
- Garcia-Ruiz, R., V. Ochoa, M.B. Hinojosa, and J.A. Carreira. 2008. Suitability of enzyme activities for the monitoring of soil quality improvement in organic agricultural systems. Soil Biol. Biochem. 40: 2137-2145. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.03.023
- Hargrove, W.L. 1986. Winter legumes as a nitrogen source for non-till grain shorgum. Agron. J. 78:70-74. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1986.00021962007800010016x
- International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). 1987. Physical Measurements in Flooded Rice Soils. pp. 65.
- Jat, M.L., M.K. Gathala, J.K. Ladha, Y.S. Saharawat, A.S. Jat, Vipin Kumar, S.K. Sharma, V. Kumar, and Raj Gupta. 2009. Soil Till. Res. 105:112-121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.06.003
- Jeon, W.-T., K.-Y. Seong, M.-T. Kim, G.-J. Oh, I.-S. Oh, and U.-G. Kang. 2010. Changes of soil physical properties by glomalin concentration and rice yield using different green manure crops in paddy. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 43: 119-123.
- Jeon, W.-T. M.-T. Kim, K.-Y. Seong, J.-K. Lee, I.-S. Oh, and S.T. Park. 2008. Changes of soil properties and temperature by green manure under rice-based cropping system. Korean J. Crop Sci. 53:413-416.
- Kaur, A.A. Chaudhary, A. Kaur, R. Choudhary, and R. Kaushik. 2005. Phospholipid fatty acid - A bioindicator of environment monitoring and assessment in soil ecosystem. Curr. Sci. India 89; 1103-1112.
- Kim, C.-G., J.-H. Seo, H.-S.Cho, S.-H. Choi, and S.-J. Kim. 2002. Effect of hairy vetch as green manure on rice cultivation. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 35:169-174.
- Kim, E.-S., and Y.-H. Lee. Response of soil microbial communities to applications of green manures in paddy at an early rice-growing stage. 2011. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 2:221-227.
- Kim, S.K., S.-J. Kim, K.D. Park, C.-W. Lee, J.-H. Ryu, J.-S. Choi, W.-T. Jeon, H.-W. Kang, and M.-T. Kim. 2014. Assessment of sustainable production on paddy field treated with green manure crops using sustainability index. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 47: 165-171. https://doi.org/10.7745/KJSSF.2014.47.3.165
- Lee, Y.-H., B.-K. Ahn, and Y.-S. Kwak. 2011. Impacts of organic farmin system on the soil microbial ecology in no-till paddy. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 44: 814-818. https://doi.org/10.7745/KJSSF.2011.44.5.814
- Li, W.H., C.B. Zhang, H.B. Jiang, G.R. Xin, and Z.Y. Yang. 2006. Changes in soil microbial community associated with invasion of the exotic weed, Mikania micrantha HBK. Plant Soil 281:309-324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-005-9641-3
- National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2000. Analysis method of soil and plant. p. 202. National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon, Korea.
- Park, K.-C., and S.-J. Kim. 2010. Changes of soil microbial phopholipid fatty acid as affected by red pepper cultivation and compost amendment Koran J. Soil Sci. Fert. 43: 194-199.
- Pielou, E.C. 1984. The interpretation of ecological data: A primer on classification and ordination. Wiley, New York
- Ray, S.S. and R.P. Gupta. 2001. Effect of green manuring and tillage practices in physical properties of puddled loam soil under rice-wheat cropping system. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 49: 670-678.
- RDA. 2015. Nongsaro: Agricultural Technology Information. http://www.nongsaro.go.kr.
- Seo, J.H., H.J. Lee, and S.J. Kim. 2000. Changes of green manure and nitrogen yield of hairy vetch according to seeding date in autumn. Korean J. Crop Sci. 45:400-404.
- Yang, C.-H. J.-H. Ryu, T.-K. Kim, S.-B. Lee, J.-D. Kim, N.-H. Daek,S. Kim, W.-Y. Choi, and S.-J. Kim. 2009. Effect of green manure crops incorporation with rice cultivation on soil fertility improvement in paddy field. Koran J. Soil Sci. Fert. 42:371-378.
- Zelles, L. 1999. Fatty acid patterns of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides in the characterisation of microbial communities in soil: a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 29: 111-129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050533
- Zhang, J.-T., Y. Dong, and Y. Xi. 2008. A comparison of SOFM ordination with DCA and PCA in gradient analysis of plant communities in the midst of Taihang Mountains, China. Ecol. Inform. 3: 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoinf.2008.09.004
- Zhang Q.-C., G.-H. Wang, and H.-Y. Yao. 2007. Phospholipid fatty acid patterns of microbial communities in paddy soil under different fertilizer treatments. J. Environ. Sci. 19: 55-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(07)60009-6