Functional Impairment and Executive Dysfunction of Children with Tourette Disorder : Comparison with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Non-Affected Controls

뚜렛 장애 아동 청소년의 기능장애 및 실행기능 결함 : 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애 아동 청소년과 정상 대조군과의 비교

Kang, Hanna;Lee, Soyoung Irene;Lee, A Reum;Kim, Shin-Gyeom;Jung, Han-Young

  • Received : 2015.06.19
  • Accepted : 2015.08.25
  • Published : 2015.09.30


Objectives : The aim of this study was to determine whether children with Tourette disorder (TD) have functional impairment and executive dysfunction in comparison to children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-affected controls. Methods : From January 2006 to December 2013, 45 children and adolescents with TD and 50 children and adolescents with ADHD diagnosed at the Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital and 50 non-affected controls were enrolled in this study. Functional impairment of the subjects was assessed using the Child and Adolescents Functioning Impairment Scale (CAFIS), parent and teacher versions. In addition, neuropsychological tests including Stroop color-word Test, Finger windows Test (FWT), and Digit span were administered. Outcomes were compared across the TD, ADHD, and non-affected controls. Results : No difference in CAFIS-parent and CAFIS-teacher results was observed between children with TD and non-affected controls, whereas, children with ADHD showed more impairments relative to non-affected controls in the CAFIS-parent. According to the Stroop color-word Test, FWT, and Digit span, executive function in children with TD did not differ from non-affected controls. Children with ADHD had poorer performance in measures of the Stroop color-word Test compared to children with TD. Conclusion : Children and adolescents with TD but not ADHD were not significantly different from non-affected controls on most measures of functional impairment and executive function. These findings suggest that an education program and intervention for children with TD would be important to reducing the stigma of TD.


Functional Impairment;Executive Function;Tourette Syndrome;Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder


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