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Low consumption of fruits and dairy foods is associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults from outpatient clinics in and near Seoul

  • Song, SuJin (Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, Eun-Kyung (Department of Nutritional Science and Food Management, Ewha Womans University) ;
  • Hong, Soyoung (Division of Public Health Nutrition, Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Shin, Sangah (Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo) ;
  • Song, YoonJu (Major of Food and Nutrition, School of Human Ecology, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Baik, Hyun Wook (Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, DMC Bundang Jesaeng Hospital) ;
  • Joung, Hyojee (Division of Public Health Nutrition, Institute of Health and Environment, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University) ;
  • Paik, Hee Young (Department of Food and Nutrition, Seoul National University)
  • Received : 2015.04.16
  • Accepted : 2015.07.08
  • Published : 2015.10.01

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by the presence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Study subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from four outpatient clinics in and near the Seoul metropolitan area of South Korea between 2006 and 2012. A total of 668 subjects (413 men and 255 women) aged ${\geq}30y$ were included in the final data analyses. For each subject, daily nutrient intake and food consumption were calculated using three days of dietary intake data obtained from a combination of 24-hour recalls and dietary records. To evaluate food consumption, mean number of servings consumed per day and percentages of recommended number of servings for six food groups were calculated. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The general linear model was performed to examine differences in nutrient intake and food consumption by sex and the presence of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Nutrient intake did not differ by the presence of metabolic syndrome in both men and women. Men with metabolic syndrome had lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for fruits compared with those without metabolic syndrome (1.6 vs. 1.1 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 63.5 vs. 49.5%, P-value = 0.013). Women with metabolic syndrome showed lower consumption and percentage of the recommendation for dairy foods than those without metabolic syndrome (0.8 vs. 0.5 servings/day, P-value = 0.001; 78.6 vs. 48.9%, P-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low intakes of fruits and dairy foods might be associated with the risk of having metabolic syndrome among Korean adults. Dietary advice on increasing consumption of these foods is needed to prevent and attenuate the risk of metabolic syndrome.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Rural Development Administration, National Research Foundation of Korea

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